A2 AQA Geography Unit 4a Revision Notes

Notes for revising AQA's A2 Unit 4a exam. 

Most of the powerpoint is made up of notes on the geographical skills mentioned in the specification and which could come up in part B of the exam.

Notes on the fieldwork part of the paper are particular to my fieldwork investigation into downstream change but could be adapted to any investigation.

Hope you find them useful!!! :)

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Aim
TO INVESTIGATE DOWNSTREAM
Potential questions: importance of theory
CHANGE IN ASHES HOLLOW,
in choice of aim/ reason for choice/
SPECIFICALLY THAT AFFECTING
importance of location in choice/
DISCHARGE, IN LIGHT OF BRADSHAW'S
relevance of a method/ evaluation of
MODEL FOR DOWNSTREAM CHANGE
success in light of the aim. REASONS FOR CHOICE: (from mark scheme)
IMPORTANCE OF THEORY: - Knowledge
- Prior knowledge ­ needed a theory which we
would understand from prior study in order that - Theory ­ ability to test this. Link with
we could understand the processes involved, location
make an educated hypothesis to begin & make - Risk assessment
educated conclusions. Had already studied - Suitability & availability of location
Bradshaw. - Available equipment, time & resources
- Location ­ needed a theory which we could
investigate in a safe, accessible, available EVALUATION:
location - Success of sampling method ­ accuracy;
reliability; validity ­ helped reach aim
- Risk assessment ­ something we could safely - Appropriateness of location for reaching aim
test. Bradshaw safe in upper course
- Conclusions ­ reliability & validity. Statistical test
- Equipment ­ a theory which would not need results: null hypothesis accepted ­ goes against
sophisticated/expensive instruments to test theory so must question accuracy & reliability.
- Challenge & learning ­ one which would Suggest improvements & developments in order to
challenge our skills & allow us to learn new ones properly fulfil aim.
& new processes. Bradshaw involved - If contradicts theory ­ why?
investigating several different variables - Personal geographical development stemming
from reaching aim…read more

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Location
Potential questions: reasons for REASONS:
choice/ importance of choice in - Accessibility ­ footpath & B-road nr. Little
relation to aim/ relevance to Stretton
theory or aim/ why appropriate. - Safety ­ upper course = shallowest,
narrowest, least fast flowing
IMPORTANT TO CHOOSE A LOCATION - Typical upper course = suitable for testing
WHICH PROVIDED THE CONDITIONS FOR US Bradshaw. Typified upper course, Bradshaw
TO SAFELY & EFFECTIVELY UNDERTAKE AN
INVESTIGATION INTO BRADSHAW'S THEORY based on the perfect river. Needed upper
course to be textbook e.g. v-shaped valley
sides, would then be able to test Bradshaw's
APPROPRIATENESS IS BASED UPON HOW theory effectively.
WELL THE LOCATION ENABLED US TO - Proximity to field studies centre = availability
CARRY OUT THE INVESTIGATION INTO of equipment
BRADSHAW'S MODEL - Average rainfall in Shropshire area
- Not affected by human activity ­ nearest
RELEVANCE TO THE THEORY OR AIM IS settlement 2km downstream
MEASURED BY WHETHER THE LOCATION
PROVIDED THE CONDITIONS NECESSARY TO - Owned by the National Trust ­ legal
CARRY OUT THE INVESTIGATION INTO permission
BRADSHAW IN ORDER TO FULFUL OUR AIM - Safe terrain ­ studying OS map, could see that
ACCURATELY AND SAFELY it was not too steep…read more

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Location ­ Positive & Negatives of Ashes Hollow
Positives Negatives
· Accessibility: footpath & B-road · Only 2km of upper course ­ not
· National Trust land ­ legal representative of whole river
permission which is what Bradshaw
· Nr. Field studies centre ­ theorises ­ not suitable for
equipment & resources e.g. theory, conclusions narrow
previous data · 500m inaccessible due to steep
· Upper course ­ safe sides & waterfall
· Distance from downstream · Only very shallow
village = 2km. No human · Only used data from one
interference location ­ broader, more
· Typified upper course = could significant results if had chosen
effectively & reliably test more points either further
Bradshaw's theory as is based on downstream or along upper
`perfect' river course of similar rivers
· Rocky outcrops affected
variables…read more

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Method of Data Collection (Float Method)
Potential questions: assess usefulness/ evaluate suitability/ evaluate effectiveness/
relevance to aim
Positives of method Negatives of method
· Gathered data necessary to reach · Subject to human error in timing, measuring
conclusion for our aim & theory effectively. (both 5m stretch & 100m intervals) ­
Velocity= distance/time. Discharge = reduces effectiveness & relevance to aim as
velocity x c.s.a relevant to theory inaccurate so unreliable
· Produced data which we could effectively & · Subject to natural influences e.g. wind,
suitably manipulate to reach conclusions debris, surface friction ­ same effect as
· Easy to carry out in environment ­ minimum above
equipment & light to carry in terrain easy · Measured only surface velocity ­ channel
to achieve aim velocity more suitable for aim & theory
· Easily repeated for accuracy · Required 2 people in river ­ risk
· Suitable intervals ­ enough sample points to · Unsophisticated, inaccurate equipment ­
cover river yet did not stretch resources or hydroprop/ digital flow metre more
time effective, suitable & relevant as more
accurate & reliable
· Too shallow to be effective in areas
· GPS more suitable for measuring interval
distances…read more

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Risk Assessment
Potential questions:
describe & justify/ evaluate
· Need to mention steps before & during:
­ Pilot study ­ familiarise with hazards that may come up in
field & prepare. Make adjustments to methods to reduce
potential risks.
­ Risk assessment grid before (before so could be aware &
prepare/familiarise with risks to avoid) ­ involved us
studying the OS map = also beneficial for our awareness of
the area & hazards within
· What we did to prepare e.g.
­ packed spare clothes ­ in case of fall, stop hyperthermia
­ wore sturdy footwear ­ reduce risk of trips & slips
­ wore waterproofs ­ reduces likelihood of hyperthermia as stay dry
­ Continuous monitoring during e.g. weather conditions/
water levels/ temperature/ human risks.…read more

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Comments

Owen Miller

Brilliant resource, adapted this to our own case study and it has everything I could possibly need to know on it!!!!

Jamie Haywood

actually the best resource on the planet. just learn this powerpoint.

shyma

this is amazing! thanks so much (ilymama)

Tyra

thaaaannnnnkkkkk yooooouuuouuuouuouu

Kayathrie

Thank you so much!! :)

Sujan1997

thannnnk you

EPJ

Thanks!

Clare Mulligan

Thank you -- excellent and will adapt

GeoWhizkid

This looks excellent! thank you so much for sharing this resource with us! :)

Nat12397

Could anyone help me with what parabolic means? Thanks

JoeM98

Does this cover everything needed for Geog 4a? 

Troy's Mum Jill

Mmmm geography

Troy's Mum Jill

Jon Snow dies


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