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Chapter 1 Russia before 1881

Tsar Alexander I ­ Reactionary autocrat (unwilling to political/social change)
Tsar Nicholas I ­ Reactionary autocrat (unwilling to political/social change)
Tsar Alexander II ­ Tsar Liberator (Political and social reforms)
Tsar Alexander III ­ Reactionary autocrat (unwilling to political/social change)
Tsar Nicholas II ­ Forced…

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The legacy of the "Tsar Liberator", Alexander II, 1855-1881.

The emancipation of the serfs, 1861.

Social Problem. 80% of the population were serfs.
Major obstacle to the modernisation of Russian society.
o Subsistence agriculture. (little exports & famine)
1861- Imperial decree to abolish serfdom.
o Former serfs had to pay…

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The problems facing Alexander III in 1881.

1) Keeping the large multi-ethnic empire together.
2) Maintaining his own supreme political power- difficult due to the fact his father has begun
reforms which raised expectations.
3) Pressures from advisers to reform the empire to make it more western. (Reforming the

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Governements had the right to choose juries.


Unity- insisted on the use of the Russian language.
Pogroms- attacks on Jews, approved by the government.

Financial reform.

Russia was the most uneconomically developed, mainly based on agriculture. Backwards and
If Russia wanted to maintain its position as a Great…

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Development was developed sponsored and directed by the government. Emphasis on good such as
iron and steel, coal and machinery.
Financed from abroad and taxes levied.
Trans-Siberian railway. Influence in the Far East.


Production rose.
Half of the industrial workforce was employed in factories with more than a thousand…

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Supported peasant uprisings.
Largest political party in Russia before 1917.

The Social Democrat Party.

Industrial development was essential for a socialist revolution.

The split between Mensheviks and Bolsheviks.
Lenin addressed the question of how the party differed from the SR's. He outlined a plan for the
creation of a…

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Chapter 5 1905- a failed revolution?

Long-term causes of the 1905

Was a spontaneous revolution. Unrest that had been building up within Russia for several years.

Social and economic causes.
80& of the population ere peasants and living in poverty. Population was growing and harvest
failures, caused famine.

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Immediate causes of the 1905 revolution?

The Russo-Japanese War
Russia aimed to expand its empire in the Far East. Direct conflict with Japan. Although the Russians
saw themselves as far superior in military power they suffered a humiliating defeat. Had to surrender
their Port Arthur naval base.
National humiliation and…

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Why did the Revolution come to an end?

The loyalty of the armed forces
Crushed disturbances and executed and exiled revolutionaries. Trotsky and Lenin fled.
Stayed loyal to the Tsar.
Supported the formation of a new political group "Union of Russian People" which was linked to
pro-government terrorist groups called…

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Chapter 6 Stolypin- repression and reform.

Government officials were being murdered in terrorist attacks, as peasant unrest continued.
Stolypin met terror with terror. Handing out death sentences. (1144 in 6 months)
Ceased publication of thousands of newspapers and closed trade unions.
Restoration of law and order.

Stolypin the reformer?



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