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Russia in Revolution 1881-1924

1881 ­ 1906
Emancipation of the serfs ­ 1861
o This was a Russian form of slavery where landowners had total control over the
peasants who worked on their land
o This was where serfs no longer had to work for their landowners and could buy…

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judges, magistrates and officials who were sympathetic towards liberal ideas were
removed from office
the power of the Okhrana and secret police were extended, and censorship of the
press was tightened
1887 under the University Statute ­ universities became under government control
1890 under the Zemstva Act ­ Alexander III…

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o the aim was to impose Russian ways on all peoples within the nation
o those that suffered the most were the: Ukrainians, Armenians, Finns
o there was state interference with their education, religion and culture and this
became systematic

Jews suffered the most under Russification
o Jewish people weren't…

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The 1891 Famine
o 17 out of Russia's 39 provinces were hit by the famine
o There was an early winter & the summer was dry and long
peasants crops dried out
o The famine was made worse by the outbreak of cholera and typhus in 1893
o The famine…

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Cities grew rapidly - St Petersburg
grew from 1 million in 1890 to approx. 2
million in 1914
Witte invited foreign experts &workers
to Russia to give advice on industrial
Witte limited imports coming from
abroad. Protective tariffs were set up to
safeguard Russia's domestic industries
Witte's policy of…

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o Weaknesses in the political system
civil servants helped Nicholas II govern Russia - they weren't efficient
the decisions they made were slow to come to pass
the majority of the civil servants were badly paid so corruption
&bribery existed
the tsar could be indecisive and was easily influenced

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The Social Grew directly out of the Populist party
Revolutionaries drew on some of the ideas from Karl Marx but their leader was Victor Chernov
They focused on attracting the support of the peasants
Peasants were experiencing economic difficulties in the 20th century which
made them more popular
The SR's…

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Liberal Industrialisation had resulted in an educated
middle class
They wanted to adopt a modern West
European style of democratic government
They rejected the idea of Marxism
They demanded for new political constitutions
which Nicholas rejected before 1905
Liberal politicians became more aggressive.
They demanded reforms like free elections &…

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Nicholas wanted to expand his policy to make up for his decline in Europe
Nicholas wanted an ice-free port because in winter all Russia's ports were unusable

Russia believed that they could win the war because Japan was an inferior nation. However:

The Japanese army & navy were better…

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The Potemkin mutiny angered the Russians even more. The sailors on board killed their officer &
took over their ship because of the conditions on the ship. When they came back to Russia, they were
welcomed as heroes by the Russians. However, troops were told to disperse the crowds &…


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