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Russia in Revolution 1881-1924
Rural country, economy based upon agriculture
Population 1831 ­ 56 million, 1881 ­ 98 million
Tsar ­ complete political power
Alexander II ­ Tsar Liberator
Emancipation of the serfs
80% of the population were serfs, major obstacle in modernisation of
Led to subsistence agriculture (serfs…

Page 2

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Increased central control:
Undid many of the reforms of Alexander II
1889 introduced `Land Captains' to enforce local laws (eventually made
members of Zemstva)
Now the most repressive state in Europe (censorship, no legal political
activity, wide ranging police powers)
The policy of Russification:
Insisting of the use of Russian…

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Coal, iron and oil production rose
By 1900 over half of the industrial workforce were employed in
Therefore large cities had very large populations, which led to poor
living conditions
Ideal environment for social unrest and radical alternatives
Led to demonstration and strikes for better conditions
Extra taxation on…

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Rapidly growing population and harvest failures
Peasant attacked government officials
However under Witte economy rapidly developed which led to rapid
growth of population in cities and poor living conditions.
Giving demands for political change a willing audience
Political causes
No elected national parliament
Demand for political reform was growing (mixed…

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Ended when government troops arrested leaders
Armed Uprisings:
December ­ several thousand armed workers battle with police and
government troops
Defeated and the revolution was over
The government reaction
Tsar issues October Manifesto
Promised reforms, accepted the proposal that an elected national
parliament be created
Proposed freedom of speech, religion…

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The Upper House (Council of State) was partly elected and partly
nominated by the Tsar
Gave the Tsar the right to govern by decree, ignoring parliament and
could still choose his own government.

The Dumas
Contained large numbers of deputies who wanted major reform, such as
land reform and release…

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Dissolved after 72days
Made 391 requests and only 2 were passed
Vyborg Manifesto
Duma deputies asked the Russian people to resist the Tsars action
through non-payment of taxes
But the plan backfired- the 200 deputies were banned from standing for
the next Duma

The Second Duma
Number of Kadets halved…

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Russia's military performance

The war began well. But patriotism didn't last long, and success was
30,000 troops were killed
95,000 were captured
But, captured town in Austria-Hungary
Russians forced out of Poland
Tue to defeat by Poland Nicholas II took command himself as
Commander-in-chief of the Russian army

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Rasputin was murdered by a group of nobles hoping his death would
aid Russian war effort
The February Revolution
The Petrograd demonstrations

140,000 workers went on strike to commemorate the anniversary of
Bloody Sunday
Strikes about food shortage occurred also
Bread rationing
Same day Duma was reconvened and it attacked…

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Once the Tsar abdicated, the Provisional Government became the
replacement government of Russia. (Octobrists & Kadets ­ minority
Rivals ­ Soviets, soldiers, Sailors forming the `United Petrograd Soviet' ­
Eventually developed into the `All-Russia Soviet' claimed the right to
issue laws for Russia
The Provisional Government shared political power…


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