First 294 words of the document:
Rag: A pattern of ascending and descending notes associated with particular moods and used as
the basis for melodic improvisation in Indian Classical music.
Sargam: A system used for naming the notes
SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA
Tal: A cyclic rhythmic pattern in Indian music that forms the basis for improvisation.
o It is played on the tabla,
o Of mostly 6 16 beats in the cycle repeating.
o Each beat is known as a matra.
o Matras are grouped into patterns called vibhags.
o The first beat of the cycle is called sam, and in notation this is marked as a cross
(important as a reference point for the beginning and end of improvisation)
o Each Tal uses different drum strokes, theka.
o The stroke patterns are made up of bols. These can be represented by syllables that
imitate the sounds produced by various strokes.
o Sitar movable frets, six or seven main strings, twelve or more sympathetic strings.
o Sarod shorter than the sitar, no frets, both main and sympathetic strings
o Sarangi bowed instrument, fretless, three strings
o Shehnai double reed wind instrument, loud strident sound
o Bansuri bamboo flute
o Harmonium drone instrument, reed organ, range of two to three octaves
o Tanpura drone instrument, no frets, fewer strings than a sitar
Alap slow introduction, no percussion, no regular metre, improvisation
Jhor similar to alap but has basic pulse, no strong beats
Gat pre composed, fixed sequence, all instruments interact
Jhala climax of music, faster, players improvise around main melody and rhythm.