Revision notes on indian raga

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  • Created on: 11-01-10 19:03
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Indian Raga
Rag: A pattern of ascending and descending notes associated with particular moods and used as
the basis for melodic improvisation in Indian Classical music.
Sargam: A system used for naming the notes
Tal: A cyclic rhythmic pattern in Indian music that forms the basis for improvisation.
o It is played on the tabla,
o Of mostly 6 ­ 16 beats in the cycle repeating.
o Each beat is known as a matra.
o Matras are grouped into patterns called vibhags.
o The first beat of the cycle is called sam, and in notation this is marked as a cross
(important as a reference point for the beginning and end of improvisation)
o Each Tal uses different drum strokes, theka.
o The stroke patterns are made up of bols. These can be represented by syllables that
imitate the sounds produced by various strokes.
o Voice
o Sitar ­ movable frets, six or seven main strings, twelve or more sympathetic strings.
o Sarod ­ shorter than the sitar, no frets, both main and sympathetic strings
o Sarangi ­ bowed instrument, fretless, three strings
o Shehnai ­ double reed wind instrument, loud strident sound
o Bansuri ­ bamboo flute
o Tabla
o Harmonium ­ drone instrument, reed organ, range of two to three octaves
o Tanpura ­ drone instrument, no frets, fewer strings than a sitar
Alap ­ slow introduction, no percussion, no regular metre, improvisation
Jhor ­ similar to alap but has basic pulse, no strong beats
Gat ­ pre composed, fixed sequence, all instruments interact
Jhala ­ climax of music, faster, players improvise around main melody and rhythm.


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