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AOS1: Structure in Western
Classical Music
· Ground Bass and variations
· Ternary Form
· Rondo
Music needs form and structure and this
was achieved in many ways between
1600 and 1899.…read more

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The Baroque era: 1600-1750
· Major and minor used
· Modulation was used to create contrast
· Dynamics change suddenly
· Repetition as the melody is build from motives
· LOADS of ornaments
· Contrapuntal (polyphonic) texture
· Harpsichord was used as a solo instrument and to play a
continuo part
· Other instruments: Flute, Oboe, Bassoon, Orchestral strings.
· Ground bass very popular
· Vivaldi, Bach and Handel were composers during the
Baroque era…read more

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The Classical era: 1750-1830
· Music written for smallish orchestras.
· The strings are dominant in classical music
· Wind instruments are used to fill out the
harmony
· There may be the odd wind solo
· Clear and simple structure
· Homophonic texture
· Obvious beat that is easy to follow
· Constant tempo
· Mozart , Hadyn and Beethoven composed
Classical music
· Piano…read more

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The Romantic era: 1800-1900
· Programme music- the music tells a story
· Tone and instrumentation are used to create different
moods
· Orchestras were bigger than ever and often consisted of over
70 players compared to classical 30.
· Newly invented Saxophone features and many other
instruments are introduced such as: cymbals, triangle, bass
clarinet, piccolo, double bassoon and the harp.
· Everyone has a turn at playing the tune
· Sounds very emotional
· More variation through massive range of dynamics, tempo
changes and changes in texture
· The music was influenced by literature and art
· Composers such as Beethoven composed in this era.
(Beethoven was unique as his work spanned 2 eras)…read more

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Ternary and Rondo form
Ternary Rondo
·Ternary has 3 sections ·Rondo form can have any number of
·ABA is the traditional structure sections
·A is the first idea and B is a ·Rondo means going round, starting with
contrasting section with the the main idea in section A and moving to a
second A section being a new section before going back round to A
variation of the first. ·New sections always contrast with A
·A ends in the main key, ·A is know as the main theme or refrain
normally with a perfect cadence ·The contrasting sections are called
and is followed by B where the episodes
music modulated to the related ·Baroque composters composed Ritornello
key rondos where the main theme is played by
·Baroque used ternary in Arias the whole orchestra and the episodes are
·Classical composers used played by soloists.
ternary to form the 3rd ·Classical pieces often end with a Rondo as
movement of a symphony (the the 4th part of the symphony
minuet and trio)
·Ternary was used in Romantic
to change mood.…read more

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