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GCSE Music Revision

Tom Lovick

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Modal Melody--Plainchant

Plainchant--sung in Church
· Written by monks
· Words are Latin texts, such as part of Mass
· Written in 800-1500AD
· Also called plainsong or Gregorian chant

Unaccompanied with no fixed rhythm· traditionally sung by all males
· No accompaniment, no organ or orchestra
· All voices…

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Classical much more balanced. Equal 4-bar phrases
Phrases often split into two-bar question and two-bar answer
Uses less ornaments
Still used binary, ternary, rondo and variation forms, but also used sonata form
Dynamics more subtle--crescendo's and diminuendo's used
Piano invented in 1700--more popular than the harpsichord
Clarinet invented during…

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Baroque and Classical Melody Patterns

Inversion Keep the same intervals between the notes, but go in the opposite
direction ­e.g. down instead of up.
Retrograde Playing the tune backwards
Retrograde Inverstion Turning the tune upside down AND backwards

Sequencing Repeating a pattern, varying the pitch--same pattern going higher or lower…

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Serialism (Schoenberg's 12 -note system)

12 notes arranged and rearranged
There are 12 notes on the piano
Schoenberg numbered them all different, and put them in their number order (called prime order)
Retrograde--turn the number order backwards e.g. 12-1 instead of 1-12
Inversion--turn 1-12 notes` intervals upside down
Retrograde Inversion…

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Twelve Bar Blues

Twelve bar structure is a set chord pattern

Very popular chord pattern

Only chords--I, IV & V.

12 Bar pattern:
I, I, I, I, IV, IV, I, I, V, IV, I, I.

Pattern is repeated throughout the whole song

Sometimes adds minor 7th to make it sound…

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Indian Classical Music

Based on Ragas

A set of notes combined to create a particular mood
Ragas are performed at a particular time of day, or during a particular season
Spirituality very important

Traditional Instruments


Long necked string instrument
4-7 metal strings--some pluck the melody, and others create the…

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Pavan and Galliard

Court Dance in Elizabethan times
Popular composers: William Byrd, Thomas Morley


Two beats per bar
Slow tempo--steady walking pace
Movements--grand and stately like a procession
Rhythm often repeated


Three beats per bar
Fast tempo
Dance steps: high jumps and kicks in the air
Lively music…

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Viennese Waltz--Strauss


Oom Cha Cha
3 beats per bar
Quite fast tempo


Strong clear melody with chords accompaniment
Homophonic texture
Simple chords--I, IV, V
Slow harmonic rhythm--chords don't change very often
Binary or ternary form


Played by large orchestras--in the Romantic period
Lots of brass, woodwind and…

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Disco Music

Started in USA--roots in soul, jazz and funk
Until 1960`s audio equipment wasn`t good enough for clubs
1970`s--amplifiers, turntables and loudspeakers improved
DJ`s took over from band leaders
People dances on their own to show off moves rather than in partners
Lighting technology improved --flashing lights and…


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