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Modal Melody--Plainchant
Plainchant--sung in Church
· Written by monks
· Words are Latin texts, such as part of Mass
· Written in 800-1500AD
· Also called plainsong or Gregorian chant
Unaccompanied with no fixed rhythm· traditionally sung by all males
· No accompaniment, no organ or orchestra
· All voices sing in unison--everybody sings the same notes--called monophonic .…read more

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Classical much more balanced.…read more

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Baroque and Classical Melody Patterns
Inversion Keep the same intervals between the notes, but go in the opposite
direction ­e.g. down instead of up.
Retrograde Playing the tune backwards
Retrograde Inverstion Turning the tune upside down AND backwards
Sequencing Repeating a pattern, varying the pitch--same pattern going higher or lower
Imitation Repeating a phrase, although it may have slight changes, and is quite often
between 2 instruments
Ostinato A repeated pattern of notes, normally the accompaniment.…read more

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Serialism (Schoenberg's 12 -note system)
12 notes arranged and rearranged
There are 12 notes on the piano
Schoenberg numbered them all different, and put them in their number order (called prime order)
Retrograde--turn the number order backwards e.g. 12-1 instead of 1-12
Inversion--turn 1-12 notes` intervals upside down
Retrograde Inversion --Inverted notes in reverse order
Transposed--The whole prime order moved up or down.…read more

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Twelve Bar Blues
Twelve bar structure is a set chord pattern
Very popular chord pattern
Only chords--I, IV & V.
12 Bar pattern:
I, I, I, I, IV, IV, I, I, V, IV, I, I.…read more

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Indian Classical Music
Based on Ragas
A set of notes combined to create a particular mood
Ragas are performed at a particular time of day, or during a particular season
Spirituality very important
Traditional Instruments
Long necked string instrument
4-7 metal strings--some pluck the melody, and others create the drone
Notes can be bended by pulling the strings
Glissandos used by sliding the finger along the string
Melody improvised on sitar, choosing a raga to improvise on
Similar to sitar but only…read more

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Pavan and Galliard
Court Dance in Elizabethan times
Popular composers: William Byrd, Thomas Morley
Two beats per bar
Slow tempo--steady walking pace
Movements--grand and stately like a procession
Rhythm often repeated
Three beats per bar
Fast tempo
Dance steps: high jumps and kicks in the air
Lively music
Dotted and syncopated rhythms
Lots of repetition and variation
Normally A, A1, B, B1, C, C1
Last chord of Pavan`s and Galliards often repeated se veral times, while the couples bow to each
other…read more

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Viennese Waltz--Strauss
Oom Cha Cha
3 beats per bar
Quite fast tempo
Strong clear melody with chords accompaniment
Homophonic texture
Simple chords--I, IV, V
Slow harmonic rhythm--chords don't change very often
Binary or ternary form
Played by large orchestras--in the Romantic period
Lots of brass, woodwind and percussion
Normally in a ballroom where couples can dance
Spread into parlours at home, and played at the piano (Chopin, Brahms)…read more

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Disco Music
Started in USA--roots in soul, jazz and funk
Until 1960`s audio equipment wasn`t good enough for clubs
1970`s--amplifiers, turntables and loudspeakers improved
DJ`s took over from band leaders
People dances on their own to show off moves rather than in partners
Lighting technology improved --flashing lights and effects
4 beats in a bar
120 beats per minute
Simple tunes, easy to dance to
Catchy tunes with a hook (short stab of tune)
Intro (gains attention and sets mood)
All…read more


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