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African A capella singing
Zulu people speak Swahili in South Africa
A capella means unaccompanied
oral tradition ­ performed from memory
occasions: weddings, funerals, religious events, birthdays
repetitive melodies
homophonic texture
harmony
no conductor ­ soloist often leads
call and response
Mbube means `lion' ­ loud and powerful
Isicathmiya means `to tip toe' ­ softer and more gentle
techniques: clicking, buzzing sounds, slurs, whistles,
glissandos, clapping
Ladysmith Black Mambazo…read more

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American line dance
Country western music
choreographed group dance ­ synchronised
`Caller' calls moves, demonstrates steps
stand in lines, face same way dancing same steps
each beat is a count, the more counts means the trickier the dance
a basic is repetition of the main dance
a restart is when the basic sequence gets interrupted so dance restarts
a wall is the direction the dancers face
each dance has a number of walls
repetitive melodies with regular 4 bar phrases (narrow range)
steady crotchet bass line
verse chorus structure
4/4 time, 1st and 3rd beats accented
country and western style clothes: check shirts, denim, cowboy boots and hats
dance to recorded music ­ dance halls, bars, clubs
band instruments: double bass, banjo, fiddle, violin, drums, guitar, harmonica,
accordion, mandolin
vocal slides…read more

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Bhangra
fusion of western pop and traditional Punjabi folk (Indian classical)
originated as folk dance to celebrate end of harvest by farmers
migrants of Punjab brought folk music over, influenced by western pop
fast tempo: 140-180bpm
Punjabi lyrics
traditional instruments: dhol, sitar, tumbi, sarangi
music led by dhol which is the driving beat, plays the chaal rhythm
(repeated 8 note pattern)
tabla plays decorative rhythms over dhol
western instruments: guitars, drum kits, keyboards, bass
electronic instruments: drum machine, synthesisers
strong, energetic steps
backing chorus shout `hoi'
microtonal intervals in vocal melody, small range in pitch, ornaments,
melodies go down at the end of a phrase…read more

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Chamber music
originally intended for a small room
2-8 players for a small group in front of
aristocrats, now performed in concert halls
no conductor so a close relationship is
needed between players; learn by
rehearsing, watching, listening each other
followed 4 movement plan: fast, slow,
minuet, very fast
one player leads ­ sit in a semi circle so
players can watch leader…read more

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Baroque chamber music
1600-1750
J.S. Bach, Handel
same mood throughout
terraced dynamics
lots of ornamentation
4 short movements
harmonies and simple triads
solo and trio sonatas
continuo by bass and harmony instruments
harpsichord
contrapuntal texture
motifs and lots of repetition…read more

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