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June 18



GCSE
MUSIC
20
REVISION
10
f By Bryony Ball




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GENERAL MUSICAL TERMS


DYNAMICS



Fortissimo -
Forte -
Mezzo Forte -
Mezzo Piano -
Pianissimo -


Very Loud
Loud
Quite Loud
Quite Soft
Very Soft


Crescendo -
Diminuendo -
Subito -
Accent -
Sforzando -


Getting Louder
Getting Softer
Sudden
Stress laid on certain sounds
With sudden force




MELODY AND…

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1st note in a scale (key note)
5th note in a scale
Rate at which chords change
Made up of the 1st, 3rd and 5th notes in a scale
What concludes a phrase or piece of music
full stop, 5th to…

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playing the same thing again
change of key
developing a short musical phrase/idea
developing the melody




STRUCTURE




Binary - AB form (or AABB), two main sections. First section
will modulate to a related key.
Ternary - ABA structure
Rondo - Opening theme recurs multiple times e.g. ABACA
Theme - The…

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Rubato
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Leisurely, quite slow
Broad, slow
Easy-going, at a walking pace
Moderately
Cheerful, fast
Full of life
Very fast
Getting quicker
Getting slower
Broadening
Robbed time




DEGREES OF THE SCALE



1st - Tonic
2nd - Supertonic
3rd - Mediant…

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Tutti
Counter Melody
Descant
Contrapuntal
Imitation
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Smooth
Detached
Rapid reiteration of one note
Art of combining melodies
Alone
Two or more parts sounding the same
Full chorus or orchestra
An additional melody played simultaneously with a prominent lead…

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Polyphonic -




TIMBRE (INSTRUMENTS AND VOICES)




Vocal Music:

Soprano
Contralto
Tenor
Bass
Baritone
Falsetto

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High Female
Low Female
High Male
Low Male
Quite Low Male
Very High Male


Music Technology:

Electric Guitar
Electronic Keyboard/Piano
Bass Guitar
Sampler
Synthesizer




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Sequencer
Drum Machine
Reverb
Multi-tracking

Keyboard:

Organ
Pianoforte
Electronic Keyboard/Piano
Harpsichord




SCALES



Major - T T S T T T S
Minor - T S T T S T+S S
Chromatic - S S S S S S S
Whole Tone - T T T T T T T
Pentatonic…

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Classical:

1750 ­ 1810/1827
Less religious
Instrumental music very prominent
Development of instruments
Piano, small brass section
Musical lines much shorter
Very orderly and formal music
Mozart, Haydn
Dynamics from pp to ff

Romantic:

1810/1827 ­ 1910
Very mushy, thick textures
Very "emotional" music ­ angry as well
Music becoming…

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Modern The harmonies are often discordant and/or the rhythms are irregular

Modern There are jazz influences

Baroque or Classical There is an orchestra piece in which an emotionally restrained melody is




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