Religious Studies OCR Ethics 2

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  • Created on: 01-05-13 19:20
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Religious Studies
Ethics 2
Religion, Peace and Justice
Attitudes towards war
War is a period of hostile relations between countries that leads to fighting
between armed forces. Holy war is an argument that is can sometimes be
necessary to use physical violence in order to defend a religion e.g the crusades.
What is meant by the `just war' theory
The idea of just war is that there should be certain conditions for starting a war:
Whether it is right to go to war
Correct conduct during war
Conduct after war
Although Christians are `anti-war', many accept that a war can be just if it satisfies
these conditions:
Proper Authority: War must be declared by a proper authority, such as the
Just Cause: A war must be defensive and prevent damage which would be
`lasting, grave and certain'
Last Resort: All other ways of resolving the conflict must have been tried
Achievable Aim: A war must have a reasonable chance of success, fighting
a war with no chance of winning is a waste of lives
Proportionality: Any harm caused by fighting must be less than the harm it
will prevent
Christian attitudes towards the use of violence
The old testament is full of conflict, the people of Israel are on many occasions
called into battle, and encouraged that God was on their side ­ that they were
fighting a `Holy War'. However Jesus does not suggest that the killing of people
could ever be justified, and encouraged pacifism.
Christian attitudes towards pacifism

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Some Christians are also pacifists because:
The commandments say `You shall not kill'
Violence rarely solves any problems, and often causes new ones
Jesus' actions and examples were always peaceful, violence was never
An evil action can never justify another one in retaliation
The concept of justice
Justice is defined as the maintenance or administration of what is just by the
impartial adjustment of conflicting claims or the assignment of merited rewards or
punishments.…read more

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Capital punishment is still used in many countries and some states in the USA as a
very strong deterrent. It fulfils the purposes of punishment, but some argue that it
is inhumane and completely wrong.
Many Christians are against the death penalty because it does not allow for
forgiveness, and due to sanctity of life, only God has the right to end life.…read more

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This approach is known as liberation theology, and some people take it to the
extent of using violence to benefit the poor.
It is believed that God favours the poor and the poor shall enter the kingdom of
heaven first, however many Christians do not accept liberation theology, and the
Pope condemns it as it promotes violence and discriminates against those who
are rich and still love God.…read more

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The traditional view is that women should look after the home and the children
while men go out to work and ultimately make all the decisions for the family.
However some Christians believe that men and women were created equally and
should be treated equally.
Attitudes towards other religions with reference to missionary work,
evangelism, ecumenism
Hinduism and Judaism do not encourage converts because they believe that
often a person is serving god even though they are members of a different
religion.…read more

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Ilsa Nazish

this is very useful for last minute revision

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