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Notes on :

Sleep Disorders

Sleep States

Biological Rhythms

Relationships : The formation breakdown and maintenance of romantic relationships
Relationships : The effects of early experiences and culture on adult relationships
Biological Rhythms

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Revision Checklist

Researcher Name/Theory Name/Information Keywords/Information
3 Bio Rhythms Circadian, Infradian, Ultradian
Endogenous Pacemaker/Exogenous Internal Body Clock/ External Time Giver
Abraham Melatonin Sparrows
Binkley Chickens, Dawn break
Superchiasmatic Nucleus Optic Chiasm, Nucleus, Internal body clock
Campbell Et al Light back of knees
Michel Siffre Cave Man, 6 Months

Page 2

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Lee's Stage Model Dennis Eats nuts racing trees
Dissatisfaction Exposure Negotiation Resolution
Attempts Termination

People with severe brain trauma spent more time in REM
Restoration REM sleep is essential for restoration and repair of the brain
Theory ­ Oswald NREM sleep vital importance for restoration and…

Page 3

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Laboratory Experiment
Core Sleep - Consists of stage for 4 NREM and REM, brain is
Horne's Theory restoring itself, normal brain functions and cognitive abilities
Optional Sleep ­ Lighter Stages of NREM aren't essential
Depressives are deprived of REM sleep (woken up in lab
when they entered REM) spend more…

Page 4

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Researcher/Study/Fact Keywords/Information
Dyssomnias Problems with amount, Timing or quality of
Parasomnias Behavioural or Psychological events that happen
during sleeping e.g. Night Terrors, Sleep
Insomnia Sleeping Difficulties
More than 30mins to get to sleep, night waking
Primary Insomnia Chronic Insomnia
No medical or psychological reason
Idiopathic insomnia ­ begins…

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Clinical Anxiety People with anxiety are more likely to
suffer from insomnia
Supported by CBT therapy

Chronotype Owl Or Lark or intermediate
Each has alertness levels at different

Sleep Apnoea Breathing Failure during sleep
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea ­ Due to
obstructions from mouth to lungs,
narrowing or enlargement of…

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Much higher rate compared to control

Atay et al Found abnormal brain activity in
temporal lobes of 12 of 22
11 of these sleepwalking disappeared
after medication

Relationships ­ Effect of early
experiences on adult relationships
Attachment Type Ainsworth
Type B Secure
Type A Insecure avoidant
Type C…

Page 7

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Bee ­ Teens use peer groups for
transition from protected family place to
adult world

Moore 100 Adolescents
Adult attachment interview and rating
from a friend
Secure less likely to engage in risky
sexual activities but were more likely to
have had sex compared to insecure

Feeney And Noller Examined…

Page 8

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Culture A set of cognitions and practices that identify a
social group and can be distinguished from
Hofstede Analysed data on 100,000 Employee's
in 50 different countries
Individualistic cultures aim for personal
goals and autonomy
Collectivist cultures find group goals and
interdependency is more important

Batabyal Young people are…

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"if a man/woman had all the qualities
you desired, would you marry the
person if you were not in love with
Love was desirable in western cultures
Least important in eastern cultures.


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