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Notes on :

Sleep Disorders

Sleep States

Biological Rhythms

Relationships : The formation breakdown and maintenance of romantic relationships
Relationships : The effects of early experiences and culture on adult relationships
Biological Rhythms

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  • Created on: 19-01-10 20:29
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Revision Checklist
Researcher Name/Theory Name/Information Keywords/Information
3 Bio Rhythms Circadian, Infradian, Ultradian
Endogenous Pacemaker/Exogenous Internal Body Clock/ External Time Giver
Abraham Melatonin Sparrows
Binkley Chickens, Dawn break
Superchiasmatic Nucleus Optic Chiasm, Nucleus, Internal body clock
Campbell Et al Light back of knees
Michel Siffre Cave Man, 6 Months
Wever Isolation unit, several months
Morgan Transplant SCN, Hamster
Silver Transplanted SCN
Stephen Et Al Rats, Damaged SCN
Russell Et al Sweat rubbed, Pheromones
Reinberg Cave-Woman, 3months
Cseizler Et al Shift work from 7 days to 21
Dawson Reset clock with bright lights 4 hours.
Reward/need satisfaction theory, byrne clore Behavioural Approach, learning theory, classical
and operant
May And Hamilton Association Positive
Lott And Lott Teachers. Positively reinforced children like
classmates better
Jennings 400 girls, Individuals who are rewarding are
liked most
Filter Model, Kerckhoff & Davis Guess Who, DAN
Social Exchange Theory Homans Ratio of costs and rewards
Equity Theory Walster et al Stability
Yperen & Buunk 259 Couples renited by advertising, 65%
equitable, 25% men over-rated. Inequitable lead
to dissatisfaction
Investment Model Caryl Rusbult Breakup relationships people considered
rewards, costs, alternatives and Investment.
College students heterosexual 7 months
Duck ­ Factors that make a relationship more Young Marriage, early parenthood, lower
likely to break down socio-economic group, poor education, different
race/religion, partners have been divorced,
great number of sexual partners before
Ducks Dissolution Model Indians Dig Small Graves For Ducks
Intrapsychic Dyadic Social Grave

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Lee's Stage Model Dennis Eats nuts racing trees
Dissatisfaction Exposure Negotiation Resolution
Attempts Termination
People with severe brain trauma spent more time in REM
Restoration REM sleep is essential for restoration and repair of the brain
Theory ­ Oswald NREM sleep vital importance for restoration and recovery of
the body
Increased growth hormone during NREM
People whom did a 57 mile marathon slept for an hour and a
half longer compared to normal the 2 nights following.…read more

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Laboratory Experiment
Core Sleep - Consists of stage for 4 NREM and REM, brain is
Horne's Theory restoring itself, normal brain functions and cognitive abilities
Optional Sleep ­ Lighter Stages of NREM aren't essential
Depressives are deprived of REM sleep (woken up in lab
when they entered REM) spend more time in REM
suggesting its vital for brain recovery
Sleep helps us conserve energy at times when it would be
inefficient for us to be awake
Explanations of
Kleitman & Webb
Animals time…read more

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Researcher/Study/Fact Keywords/Information
Dyssomnias Problems with amount, Timing or quality of
Parasomnias Behavioural or Psychological events that happen
during sleeping e.g.…read more

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Clinical Anxiety People with anxiety are more likely to
suffer from insomnia
Supported by CBT therapy
Chronotype Owl Or Lark or intermediate
Each has alertness levels at different
Sleep Apnoea Breathing Failure during sleep
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea ­ Due to
obstructions from mouth to lungs,
narrowing or enlargement of tissue
Central Sleep Apnoea ­ Choking
Treatments for sleep apnoea Surgery to widen the throat
Breathing mask OSA
Nacrolepsy Extreme Daytime sleepiness
Cataplexy ­ person collapses and
follows strong emotion
Sleep Paralysis
Hypnogogic Hallucinations…read more

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Much higher rate compared to control
Atay et al Found abnormal brain activity in
temporal lobes of 12 of 22
sleepwalkers.…read more

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Bee ­ Teens use peer groups for
transition from protected family place to
adult world
Moore 100 Adolescents
Adult attachment interview and rating
from a friend
Secure less likely to engage in risky
sexual activities but were more likely to
have had sex compared to insecure
Feeney And Noller Examined link between attachment and
relationship breakdown
193 students
Avoidant attachments more likely to
split up
Relationships from casual to committed
showed changes in attachment type
Hazan And Shaver Attachment types similar to love styles
Asked…read more

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Culture A set of cognitions and practices that identify a
social group and can be distinguished from
Hofstede Analysed data on 100,000 Employee's
in 50 different countries
Individualistic cultures aim for personal
goals and autonomy
Collectivist cultures find group goals and
interdependency is more important
Batabyal Young people are unlikely to make good
life partner choices and therefore their
parents.…read more

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Love was desirable in western cultures
Least important in eastern cultures.…read more


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