PSYA3 Psychology Intelligence- Environmental Factors

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Environmental Factors in Intelligence
Family Environment/ Socioeconomic Factors
Higher you are up the social class ladder the more intelligent you are seen to be. Intelligence is
determined by your parents occupation
"British National child Study" Class I vs. Class V. Class I scored 10 more points on IQ tests
than Class V (unskilled)
May be because Class I may stimulate children with books, money for tuition and university.
Class I are more prepared. "National Stats Omnibus Survey" 71% of Class I households have
internet access compared to 26% of Class V.
Real Life Applications:
Adoption studies in France. "Wahlsten" children moved from low socioeconomic households
ones of a higher their IQ went up by 16 points. This shows that family/background does effect
how intelligent we are.
High Scope Preschool Project. 128 poor black 4 year olds. If they went to this preschool they
were far more likely to graduate. This shows that family background is important and help is
needed like this school has done. Can compensate lack of intelligence with support.
"Belmont and Marolla" Birth order is also said to have an effect. 386 dutch men all 19 years old. Larger
the family you have the less intelligent you are. First borns are most likely to have a higher IQ.
"Blake" 10,000 people and found no difference between where they were in the family and
their IQ.
School
"Ceci" Meta analysis. Children who attend school regularly have higher IQ. IQ drops in school
holidays. On average IQ increases by 2.7 every year.
Culture
Group Sociolisation Theory. Assumes experiences outside of home are far more important, for
example who you socialise with. So if you socialise with `rebels' you are less likely to intelligent as you
are too focused on being like them.
Ethnicity. American study by "Murray" compared IQ scores of American immigrants. Score lower on
IQ tests.
Evaluation:
IQ tests are seen as only indicator of intelligence.
Genetic factors may result in intelligence
Cultural Bias "Yerkes" black immigrants. Kenya!
Gender Bias.
"Caspi" suggests that Genetics and Environmental factors can work together in intelligence
Reductionistic, Doesn't consider other factors
Determinitic, if score low on IQ test not intelligent? "Gardner" multiple intelligence theory.

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