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Depression is a mood disorder involving prolonged and fundamental disturbance of emotions. There
are two main types, unipolar and bipolar, and depression can also be broken down into endogenous
depression, related to internal biochemical and hormonal factors and exogenous (reactive)
depression, related to stressful experiences, though sufferers can have…

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Inter-rater reliability= if several consultant agree on the same diagnosis, a system can be seen as
Test-retest reliability= assess the patient two or more times and see whether they consistently
receive the same diagnosis
Zanarini '00- MDD inter-rater reliability correlation of 0.8
Beck '96- 93% test-retest reliability when using…

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al (2003) found that labelling has practically no effect on public attitudes towards people with major
depression; however the same was not found with schizophrenia.

Cultural Relativism
Davison and Neale (1994) found in Asian cultures, those experiencing emotional turmoil are praised
and rewarded if they don't show it, in contrast,…

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There is a possibility with twin studies of diagnostic unreliability ­ that is, if researchers are
aware that one twin suffers from depression, then this clouds their judgement in assessing
the other twin
Twin/family studies do not consider whether social class or socio-psychological factors play a
role. If genes caused…

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IDAs- reductionism, determinism

-Higher levels of cortisol results in depression. Carroll (1982) found that techniques that suppress
cortisol were successful in helping depressed patients. This would suggest depressed people
have an over-active HPAC
-Oestrogen-progesterone imbalance also plays a role according to Dalton (1964). PM
depression is due to increased…

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The theory doesn't account for depression that lasts for a few years as surely adjusting to a
new position in the hierarchy would not take this long (Social Competition theory)
Reductionism. The theory only accounts for one factor, evolutionary value, when there are
many possible causative factors and so the…

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Eranti et al (2007) - 46 MDDs assigned to ECT or magnetic fields randomly. The ppts
were assessed immediately, 1 month later and 6 months later. 59% of ECT patients had
no symptoms just after and at 1 month later vs 17% of controls. However at 6 months

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Empirical support for effectiveness. The MAOIs, the Tricyclics, and the SSRIs have proved
consistently effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder, but the Tricyclics are
generally more effective than the MAOIs, and produce fewer side effects
Treatments can either cure the processes causing the disorder (curative treatments) or…

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the idea that reduced activity and lack of reinforcement are correlated with feelings of hopelessness
and incidents of depression


Although behaviourism explains depression in terms of being a secondary gain- for example,
the sympathetic attention of others following a negative life event- it cannot explain why
depression continues after…

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bi-directional relationship, where depressed individuals' thoughts cause depression and
The research is inconsistent and so we cannot be sure if negative cognitions cause or are a
consequence of depression resulting in a lack of reliability
Research into cognitive factors relies on self-report, e.g. the Beck Depression Inventory. The


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