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Bandura's Bobo Doll Study
36 Boys + Girls. 3-6 year olds. 3 Groups.
1. Control group: Didn't see an adult
2. Experimental group 1: Saw an aggressive adult
3. Experimental group 2: Saw a passive adult
Adults either hit or hugged the bobo doll + they were either rewarded or punished. The adults
then left the room, leaving the child and the doll.
Found:
4. Children who were exposed to the aggressive model were more likely to show imitated
aggressive behaviour.
5. Children in experimental group ­ showed more aggressive behaviour.
6. When the adults was rewarded more children imitated them + when the adult was punished
less children copied them.
7. Boys imitated more than girls.
Evaluation:
8. Demand characteristics: Children were aware of what they had to do, knew what adults
wanted. Children arriving said `look mommy, there's the doll we have to hit'
9. Lacks mundane realism: Doll isn't a real person, it doesn't hit back + its designed to be hit.
10. Done on children: They cant differentiate between what's right and wrong. They're not fully
cognitively developed. Cant generalise onto adults.…read more

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Support Against
· Face validity: · Parental + cultural attitudes have a huge
·It makes sense and fits what we expect. influence.
·Exposure to violence in the media will · Violence in kids can be other factors too
desensitise people. (films, good guys win (abuse + poverty).
though violence). · Watershed + ratings
·May also reduce inhibitions ­ if other people · Don't hit children ­ provides aggressive role
behave like this then it makes it ok. model
· Williams: · Don't positively reinforce them
·Looked at children in a town in British · Cultural differences: Amishe = very passive,
Columbia. They were looked at before TV was Inuit = very intolerant.
introduced and after. The physical and verbal · Individual Differences ­ different learning
aggression did increase. history, different models, different
Parental + cultural attitudes have a huge reinforcements.
influence. · Deterministic
· Archer + Gartner: Found, an increase in · Nature vs nurture
murders in USA after WW2 + Vietnam = war · Aggressive parents raise aggressive
promotes violence as a way of resolving children, who are then aggressive to their
problems. children. (kauffman)…read more

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Deindividuation ­ to lose one's sense of individuality and identity. By:
­ Becoming part of a crowd
­ Identifying with a particular role ( often aided by wearing uniform or mask)
· Le Bon (1896) ­ individuals are more likely to behave in an aggressive manner when part of a
large anonymous group.
· A collective mind-set is created + group can become a `mob'. The shared responsibility for
action reduces individual guilt.
· Dienner
· Deindividuation occurs when self awareness is blocked by environmental events. Individual
is trapped in the moment, perception of time is distorted + they're unable to consider the
consequences.
· Critical factors include :
­ Strong feelings of group membership
­ Increased levels of arousal
­ Focus on external events
­ Feeling of anonymity
= Reduces all self-awareness = Deindividuation.…read more

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Diener et al: Trick or treat study.
· Naturalistic observation of children on Halloween.
· To establish if Deindividuation had an effect on a child's behaviour, three conditions:
· Children trick or treated alone or in group
· 1/2 Trick or treating children asked name; other 1/2 not
· All children given the opportunity to steal extra candy
· Found those with name tags stole less + those without stole more. Also, those in a group
stole more than those alone.
1. High ecological validity
2. Children, not applicable to adults
3. Lakhs internal validity ­ stealing sweets isn't aggressive
· Prentice-Dunn + Rogers: Modified Diener's theory to distinguish between:
­ Public self awareness - concern over the impression of yourself you are presenting to
others when you are aware of being judged.
­ Private self awareness ­ your sense of self, consisting of thoughts, feelings, values and
internal standards of behaviour.
Reduction in either, = aggressive behaviour, but only reductions in private self awareness
can lead to genuine Deindividuation.…read more

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Zimbardos Stanford prison experiment can also be used.
Zimbardo 1969: Explored Deindividuation in female undergraduates.
· Group 1: Dressed in white lab coats with hoods over their faces
· Group 2: Wore large name tags.
· All pps observed a woman being interviewed and evaluated her performance by
administering electric shocks to interviewee.
· Condition 1 ­ Pleasant interviewee
· Condition 2 ­ Obnoxious interviewee
· Group 2 shocked the obnoxious interviewee more than the pleasant one
· Group 1 (deindividuated) shocked both interviewees equally.
· Zimbardo concluded that deindividuation increased aggression, making it indiscriminate and
not at all influenced by individual characteristics.
· He suggested, individual behaviour = rational + consistent with norms.
Rehm et al:
· Aggression in handball
· Deindividuation was created by giving one team orange shirts, whilst other team wore own
clothes.
· In boy teams, uniformed teams were more aggressive than non-uniform.
· In girl teams, no differences found.
· Researchers concluded that uniform = loss of individuality = deindividuation.…read more

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