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Aggression is an act carried out with the intention to harm another person.
Types of aggression:
Hostile aggression: Driven by anger & performed as an end in itself (affective aggression). Goal
is to harm another to get even with them.
Characterized by displays of rage (screaming, shouting, crimes of passion)
Instrumental aggression: Carried out to solve a problem (military or mafia). Serves as a means
to an end. This is cool, detached, & often pre-mediated = not over-heated.
Most murders = Hostile, 50% erupt from arguments (impulsive, emotional + volatile).
Social Learning Theory:
· Aggressive behaviour is learnt by direct experience (hit parent/role model) or by vicarious
experience (observing role model + imitating behaviour).
· Experience + observation: Done through operant conditioning (reinforcement). Imitate role
models. Men are more affected (hot-head), influenced by media and parents.
· Perceived self-efficacy: How confident you are in your own ability, if you're good at being
aggressive, you'll do it again. Gender differences occur, as men are stronger.
· Vicarious reinforcement: If you see the person being aggressive getting rewarded = imitation.
However, people may learn things, but don't necessarily do them.…read more

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Bandura's Bobo Doll Study
36 Boys + Girls. 3-6 year olds. 3 Groups.
1. Control group: Didn't see an adult
2. Experimental group 1: Saw an aggressive adult
3. Experimental group 2: Saw a passive adult
Adults either hit or hugged the bobo doll + they were either rewarded or punished. The adults
then left the room, leaving the child and the doll.
4. Children who were exposed to the aggressive model were more likely to show imitated
aggressive behaviour.
5. Children in experimental group ­ showed more aggressive behaviour.
6. When the adults was rewarded more children imitated them + when the adult was punished
less children copied them.
7. Boys imitated more than girls.
8. Demand characteristics: Children were aware of what they had to do, knew what adults
wanted. Children arriving said `look mommy, there's the doll we have to hit'
9. Lacks mundane realism: Doll isn't a real person, it doesn't hit back + its designed to be hit.
10. Done on children: They cant differentiate between what's right and wrong. They're not fully
cognitively developed. Cant generalise onto adults.…read more

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Support Against
· Face validity: · Parental + cultural attitudes have a huge
·It makes sense and fits what we expect. influence.
·Exposure to violence in the media will · Violence in kids can be other factors too
desensitise people. (films, good guys win (abuse + poverty).
though violence). · Watershed + ratings
·May also reduce inhibitions ­ if other people · Don't hit children ­ provides aggressive role
behave like this then it makes it ok. model
· Williams: · Don't positively reinforce them
·Looked at children in a town in British · Cultural differences: Amishe = very passive,
Columbia. They were looked at before TV was Inuit = very intolerant.
introduced and after. The physical and verbal · Individual Differences ­ different learning
aggression did increase. history, different models, different
Parental + cultural attitudes have a huge reinforcements.
influence. · Deterministic
· Archer + Gartner: Found, an increase in · Nature vs nurture
murders in USA after WW2 + Vietnam = war · Aggressive parents raise aggressive
promotes violence as a way of resolving children, who are then aggressive to their
problems. children. (kauffman)…read more

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Deindividuation ­ to lose one's sense of individuality and identity. By:
­ Becoming part of a crowd
­ Identifying with a particular role ( often aided by wearing uniform or mask)
· Le Bon (1896) ­ individuals are more likely to behave in an aggressive manner when part of a
large anonymous group.
· A collective mind-set is created + group can become a `mob'. The shared responsibility for
action reduces individual guilt.
· Dienner
· Deindividuation occurs when self awareness is blocked by environmental events. Individual
is trapped in the moment, perception of time is distorted + they're unable to consider the
· Critical factors include :
­ Strong feelings of group membership
­ Increased levels of arousal
­ Focus on external events
­ Feeling of anonymity
= Reduces all self-awareness = Deindividuation.…read more

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Diener et al: Trick or treat study.
· Naturalistic observation of children on Halloween.
· To establish if Deindividuation had an effect on a child's behaviour, three conditions:
· Children trick or treated alone or in group
· 1/2 Trick or treating children asked name; other 1/2 not
· All children given the opportunity to steal extra candy
· Found those with name tags stole less + those without stole more. Also, those in a group
stole more than those alone.
1. High ecological validity
2. Children, not applicable to adults
3. Lakhs internal validity ­ stealing sweets isn't aggressive
· Prentice-Dunn + Rogers: Modified Diener's theory to distinguish between:
­ Public self awareness - concern over the impression of yourself you are presenting to
others when you are aware of being judged.
­ Private self awareness ­ your sense of self, consisting of thoughts, feelings, values and
internal standards of behaviour.
Reduction in either, = aggressive behaviour, but only reductions in private self awareness
can lead to genuine Deindividuation.…read more

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Zimbardos Stanford prison experiment can also be used.
Zimbardo 1969: Explored Deindividuation in female undergraduates.
· Group 1: Dressed in white lab coats with hoods over their faces
· Group 2: Wore large name tags.
· All pps observed a woman being interviewed and evaluated her performance by
administering electric shocks to interviewee.
· Condition 1 ­ Pleasant interviewee
· Condition 2 ­ Obnoxious interviewee
· Group 2 shocked the obnoxious interviewee more than the pleasant one
· Group 1 (deindividuated) shocked both interviewees equally.
· Zimbardo concluded that deindividuation increased aggression, making it indiscriminate and
not at all influenced by individual characteristics.
· He suggested, individual behaviour = rational + consistent with norms.
Rehm et al:
· Aggression in handball
· Deindividuation was created by giving one team orange shirts, whilst other team wore own
· In boy teams, uniformed teams were more aggressive than non-uniform.
· In girl teams, no differences found.
· Researchers concluded that uniform = loss of individuality = deindividuation.…read more

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