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The Role of Genes and Hormones
The role of genes in gender development
Each person has 23 pairs of chromosomes. These carry genes containing instructions about physical and
behavioural characteristics. The sex chromosome determine the individuals sex, i.e. XX or XY.
There is usually a direct link between and individuals…

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Evolutionary Explanation
Mate choice
The key to adaptive behaviour is reproductive success.
Men look for partners who are physically attractive and women look at the resources their partner can
provide.
Evolutionary theory suggests that women are most concerned about resources whereas men select
women who are fertile and healthy.
Women…

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Meat sharing hypothesis: When humans turned from vegetarians to meat eaters, men became hunters due
to selective pressures (Hill and Kaplan, 1988) in modern huntergatherer societies men used meat as a means
of gaining access to women.
Determinism: evolutionary psychologists suggest that genes only predispose us to behave in certain…

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() (Luxen, 2007) Evolutionary theory can explain this in a simpler theory. Behaviour is at least as
important as physical characterism and therefore selective pressure would act directly on behaviour to create
psychological as well as sex differences. Also, even animals display sex differences with their toy preferences,
suggesting they…

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5% did experience gender dysphoria but generally there was not a clear relationships between prenatal
exposure to male hormones and dysphoria.

The brainsex theory
Based on the fact that male and female brains are different and perhaps transsexuals brains do not match
their genetic sex.
One average the male BSTc,…

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Children realise that gender is consistent across time and situations. When a child has acquired gender
constancy, they will then learn about genderappropriate behaviour.

(+) (Slaby and Frey, 1975) children aged 25 years old were shown a silent film with 1 male and 1 female
on a split screen carrying…

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(+) (Bradberd et al., 1986) when 4 9 year olds were told that a neutral toys was either a boy or girls toy
they took greater interest in the ingroup toys. One week later they remembered more details about ingroup
objects. Suggesting, schemas are particularly related to memory.

Resilience of…

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The influence of peers
They offer a model of genderlinked behaviours and provide feedback when an individual steps outside what
is accepted as 'appropriate' behaviour for that gender.

(Lamb and Roopnarine, 1979) observed preschool children at play and found that when maletyped
behaviour was reinforced in girls the behaviour was…

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Cultural variations: Magnitude of sex differences
There are also some significant variations, which Mead described as cultural relativism.
(Berry et al., 2002) found that male superiority is only found in relatively tight knit, sedentary societies, but
absent or even reversed in 'looser' nomadic societies.
The same pattern emerges with conformity.…

Comments

ahmedur

Brilliant!

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