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Media influence- the effects of formats of public communication on pro- and anti-social behaviour
Anti-social behaviour- actions that go against the basic principles of society
Pro-social behaviour- actions intended to benefit others

Bandura argued that both Aggressive ideas or `cues' An alternative explanation…

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positively with later aggressive

Evaluation of explanations of Media influence on pro- and anti-social behaviour

Due to a higher density of research conducted on anti-social behaviour a stereotypical view
of TV being a force for anti-social behaviour has arisen. Cumberbatch'89 argued that
antisocial acts are more obvious and easier…

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Grusser et al'07 surveyed 7000 gamers, finding that 12 percent were addicted according to World
Health Organisation criteria. Shotton'89 however found that those addicted for 5 years did well
educationally and secured high-ranking jobs, suggesting that gaming is a harmless addiction


Much research is correlational- it may be more…

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agreed and policed codes of practice for websites, especially social network sites which
tend to be heavily used by young people- also an argument for parental control software
Differences in research findings concerning the effects of computers on communication and
negotiation may be due to differences in the types of…

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Persuasion via CR is problematic- conflicting
demands- cannot fully engage- peripheral route is
better for selling products

Explanations for the persuasiveness of television advertising

The aim of advertisers is to manipulate consumers' attitudes and to influence their behaviour. There
are several main explanations:

Hypodermic effect- This explanation sees television advertising…

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The psychology of celebrity
Celebrity- a person who is `famous for being famous' and contributes little long standing worth to
Parasocial relationships- a one-sided relationship, usually formed with celebrities

Factors affecting Parasocial relationships
Personality factors may contribute to an attraction to celebrities, with certain personalities having a

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Studies into personality type and attraction may lack credibility- rely on retrospective data
(lacks scientific rigour)
Cultural issues- most of the studies are derived from Western cultures- biased and
Social psychological explanations ignore the important role of biological factors in
determining attraction to celebrity (Evolutionary theory) and a combination…

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reluctant celebrities, thrust into the limelight without personal desire e.g. the McCanns
- Celebrity journalism often focuses on attractiveness, romantic liaisons and reproductive success,
supporting the idea that attraction to celebrity has an evolutionary basis
-Evolutionary theory is accused of being reductionist, as it reduces behaviour to the single

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education than those scoring low
Fujii et al looked at the characteristics of people suffering from erotomania (delusions) and found
that they had various cognitive deficits and lacked the flexibility in their thinking

Para-social bereavement
Giles (2003) has identified a phenomenon called para-social bereavement. This is the grief shown by…

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Celebrity stalking constitutes only about 1% of the total stalking cases but because of their high
profile media coverage we perceive them to be more common. One well-known victim of stalking
was Madonna, whose stalker, Robert Hoskins, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for stalking and
terrorising her.



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