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Each partner tries to maximise rewards and minimise costs.
For relationship to be worthwhile, the rewards have to outweigh the costs. PROFITS =REWARDS ­ COSTS
Rewards can include: Sex, Companionship, Being cared for.
Costs can include: Effort, Financial investment, Time wasted
Social exchange theory stresses commitment to…

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The social exchange theory can also be used to explain individual differences between and within individuals. Differences change over time because alternatives
change ­ changing the comparison line.
The social exchange theory is therefore useful in real life.
Theory has been criticised for focusing too much on the individual's perspective…

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Griffit and Guay conducted a study on how people rated experimenters after experiencing a reward from them or not. The participants were asked to perform a
creative task for the experimenter, and when they'd finished, the experimenter either evaluated it positively, or gave no evaluation. Those that received a positive…

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5stage model that is involved in the process of dissolution:
1. Dissatisfied ­ One or both partners feels that there are real issues with the relationship and feel dissatisfied.
2. Exposure ­ The problems felt are brought out into the open.
3. Negotiation ­ Exposure of the dissatisfaction may lead…

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Supported by reallife breakups. Undergraduates surveyed who had recently been through a breakup. Said they experienced emotional distress also personal
growth. Breaking up gave them new insights into themselves and a clearer idea about future partners. Through Grave dressing & resurrection they were able to
get on with their lives…

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Buss & Schmitt ­asked how many sexual partners' people would want over the next 2 years, next decade and over a lifetime. Men average 2 years =8 and
women =1. Men average lifetime =18 and women =4 or 5Also in all studies the participants may give `social desirable' answers, which…

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Parental Certainty maternal grandparents are certain a grandchild is genetically related to them, while paternal grandparents are not. In keeping with the
evolutionary explanation, care and resource allocation will therefore come from maternal grandparents rather than paternal ones.
Krebs and Davies report that the males of some fish species release…

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Individualistic emphasis on the individual, Their goals, rights, attitudes and needs. Consequently there is a focus on acquaintences, close friendships and
intimate partnerships. Monogamy (due to laws).
Voluntary choice with relationships due to a greater availability of potential partners.
Discontinuous change is regarded as important and inevitable so…

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Physical Attraction
Cunningham ­ high degree of agreement in psychical attraction and different races, large eyes, facial symmetry, small noses, dilated pupils, large smiles and well
groomed hair.
Singh ­ Low waist to hip ratio.
Wetsman ­ Tanzania men, higher weight women are more attractive regardless of WHR, is…

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Social Learning Theory

The bobo doll experiment by Bandura which was aimed to see whether children may learn aggressive behaviour through rewards and punishment
provides supports for the social learning theory. Children who observed aggressive behaviours being rewarded those in the control group and acted more
aggressively than those who…


Matthew Cleverly


Good information for revision, however hasn't been spell checked and there are some grammatical issues



Sorry mate but we can't all spell and be grammaticlly correct when you are revising the night before



Much easier than writing all of this out of the textbook, great content too. Thanks a lot, you've saved me haha



Theres some good resources here too if you guys need it: Psychology AQA A

Just click on "Resources" - lots of free stuff, past questions, papers and essay structure advice for AS.

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