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ATTITUDE CHANGE
Hovland-Yale Model
Carl Hovland based at Yale university
Investigated effect of Nazi propaganda during WW2
Found a sequential model of attitude change
Who says what to whom
Who = source -> what is the person like (expert, non-expert,
attractive etc)
What = message -> is it repeated, one sided or two sided and does
it provoke fear, too much and people switch off
Whom = audience -> people being persuaded, influenced by self
esteem, age
4 stage model:
ATTENTION -> COMPREHENSION -> REACTANCE -> ATTITUDE CHANGE
Factors that influence attitude change:
Credibility Physical appearance
Speed of speech Content
Fear Audio-visual
Self esteem Similarity…read more

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Evaluation
· Assumption that understanding the message leads to
persuasion
· Doesn't explain how the persuasion happens
+ Role of fear -> Meyerwitz & chaiken
Female uni students randomly allocated 1 of 3 conditions:
Given leaflet about breast cancer
1) Loss condition -> emphasis on dangers of failing to self
examine
2) Gain condition -> positive consequences of self examination
(early treatment etc)
3) Neutral condition -> basic facts about breast cancer
Interviewed 4 months after
Group exposed to fear changed attitude towards self examination.
+/- sample bias -> only uses females (gender bias) however only
really applies to them, although men can get breast cancer but
unlikely
+ random allocation of groups
- Independent groups design ­> not everyone seas each leaflet
- Not protected from psychological harm -> sensitive issue…read more

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Morton & Campbell
Source factors (credibility)->
- Effects of information source on peers attitude
towards unfamiliar child with autism
- Pp's received info from different sources e.g.
Doctor, teachers, parents
- More positive attitude when info came from extra
familial/expert source e.g. Doctor
Audience factors -> Lagartu et al
· Tested idea that efficient way to deal with low
involvement is to make message entertaining
· Used fictional stories to illustrate HIV/AIDS
prevention
· Found better the quality of story the more
cognitive processing induced and more
favourable attitudes…read more

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Elaboration Likelihood Model
dual process model
Central route = careful and rational thinking
Peripheral route = limited information
-Central route taken when message is personally important -> high
need for cognition = lasting change
-Peripheral route taken when less personally important -> cognitive
miser, jump for conclusions = transient change…read more

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Evaluation
Haugteudt et al
+ Need for cognition (NC)->
- central route more effective for high NC pp's
- Persuasion in high NC based on evaluation of
product attributes
· Low NC peripheral cues more important
Vidrine et al
+ Real life application ->
· Showed its relevance to real life health
campaigns
· Students exposed to either fact or emotion
based smoking campaign
· High NC influenced more by fact message,
low NC emotion message…read more

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