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TIMELINE (BRIEF)
President Major Civil Rights Legislation Date
Eisenhower Civil Rights Act Passed 1957
Civil Rights Act Passed 1960
JFK Civil Rights Act Initiated
Johnson Civil Rights Act Passed 1964
Voting Rights Act Passed 1965
Civil Rights Act (Fair housing Act) 1968
Passed…read more

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PRESIDENTIAL ATTITUDE
EISENHOWER JOHN F. KENNEDY LYNDON B. JOHNSON
· BELIEVED POSITION OF · SYMPATHETIC TO AA · VIEWED CIVIL RIGHTS ACT
AS PART OF RANGE OF
AA WOULD IMPROVE
MEASURES "GREAT
NATURALLY OVER TIME · PROMISED TO END CIVIL SOCIETY"
RIGHTS SEGREGATION
· RELUCTANT TO GET · MIXED RECORD ON CR;
INVOLVED WITH CIVIL
AS SENATOR, USED POSITION
RIGHTS (LITTLE ROCK)
TO SUPPORT BOTH
EISENHOWER'S ACT BUT
ALSO WATERED THEM DOWN…read more

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DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER (1953-1961)
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT 1957: CIVIL RIGHTS ACT 1960:
· FOCUSED ON VOTING RIGHTS FOR AA · EXTENDED POWERS OF COMMISSION ON
CR BY GETTING LOCAL AUTHORITIES TO
· MONITOR VOTING RIGHTS OF AA BY BI- KEEP RECORD OF VOTER REGISTRATION
PARTISAN COMMITTEE
· ALLOWED COMMISSION TO MONITOR
· PUNISHMENT WAS NOT HARSH OR BLACK VOTE MORE ACCURATELY
EFFECTIVE;
ONLY $1000 DOLLAR FINE OR SIX MONTHS IN CONCLUSION:
JAIL MAXIMUM
1960- both acts only increased proportion of black
votes by 3%…read more

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JOHN F. KENNEDY (1961-1963)
· KENEDY DID LITTLE TO IMPROVE EQUALITY DUE TO NEEDED SUPPORT FROM SOUTHERN WHITE POLITICIONS IN
CONGRESS
· HE APPOINTED FIVE BLACK JUDGES TO FEDERAL COURTS INCLUDING THURGOOD MARSHALL (NAACP CHIEF
COUNCIL)
COMMITTEE ON EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPURTUNITY (CEEO):
· DESIGNED TO ENSURE EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR EVERYONE WHO WORKED FOR THE
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
· HOWEVER- VERY FEW BLACKS EMPLOYED = LITTLE IMPACT
· BIRMINGHAM CAMPAIGN FORCED KENNEDY TO SHOW LEADERSHIP AND FULFIL PROMISE OF CIVIL RIGHTS ACT
BUT DIDN'T SUPPORT IT UNTIL MARCH TO WASHINGTON…read more

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LYNDON B JOHSNON (1963-1969)
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965 ELEMENTARY & SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT HIGHER
· EDUCATION ACT ( BOTH1965)
OUTLAWED SEGREGATION OF · OUTLAWED `EXPERIMENTS'
ANY FACILITY OR PUBLIC PLACE THAT PREVENTED ANY US · INCREASED FUNDING GIVEN TO EDUCATION
CITIZEN FROM VOTING
· ALLOWED CR COMMISSION THE · TARGETED TO HELP POOREST STATES, SCHOOLS AND STUDENTS
POWER TO ENFORCE · GAVE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
DESEGREGATION THE POWER TO OVERSEE · HELPED SOUTHERN SCHOOLS WITH HIGH PROPORTION OF BLACK
STUDENTS AT COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY
VOTING REGISTRATION ACROSS FAIR HOUSING ACT 1968
· TURNED FAIR EMPLOYMENT AMERICA
PRACTISES COMMISSION · OUTLAWED DISCRIMINATION IN
PERMANENT · ENDED ABILITY OF LOCAL SALE/RENTAL OF HOUSE
GOVERNMENTS TO DENY BLACK
· ACT ENDED SOUTHERN LEGAL CITIZENS THEIR RIGHT TO VOTE · ATTEMPTED TO RAISE ISSUE OF
SEGREGATION GHETTOS
· LIMITED; NO NEW POWERS GIVEN
TO GOVT TO ENFORCE LAW…read more

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