The US presidents 

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  • The US presidents
    • Truman 1945–1953, (Democrat)
    • Eisenhower 1953-1961 (Republican)
    • Kennedy 1961-1963 (Democrat)
    • Johnson 1963-1969 (Democrat)
  • Truman 1945–1953, (Democrat)
  • Eisenhower 1953-1961 (Republican)
  • Kennedy 1961-1963 (Democrat)
  • Johnson 1963-1969 (Democrat)
  • Nixon 1969-1974 (Republican)
    • The US presidents
    • Involvement in civil rights
      • Involvement in Vietnam
        • Supported French because of the context of the cold war.
          • Involvement in Vietnam
          • Believed in containment. Blamed for losing China.
            • Wanted French support for NATO
              • Advised t support the French to protect US interests in SE Asia
                • Involvement in Vietnam
                  • Involvement in civil rights
                    • Believed in the Domino Theory
                      • Involvement in Vietnam
                      • Did not want to see money invested into Vietnam wasted
                        • Supported French regime, not colonial takeover
                          • Did not agree with the Geneva Accords and did not sign. Still wanted to heavily influence RVN
                            • As French withdrew, sent in more military advisors to help train the ARVN  and allowed RVN to join SEATO
                              • Backed by new leader, Ngo Dinh Diem, as he was fiercely anti-communist
                                • Involvement in Vietnam
                                  • Also believed in the Domino Theory
                                    • Involvement in Vietnam
                                    • Curse of appeasement
                                      • Confidence -'can do' attitiude, also had a lack of understanding of the Vietnamese' culture
                                        • Also supported Diem, gradually becam disillusioned with his regime.
                                          • Wanted a regime that could be heavily influenced by USA, but not react enough to insurgent activity
                                            • Ploughed more money into Nam' increased defence budget from $40b to $56b per year
                                              • Increased MAAG TO 16,300 by 1963 and NSAM 52
                                                • Was advised by hawks like McNamara to promote a better world by making examples eg. Laos
                                                  • Involvemnet in Vietnam
                                                    • He was shown to either be lying or naive after declaring that victory was close in 1967 prior to Tet Offensive
                                                  • Backing of congress after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, allowed bombing campaigns
                                                    • Involvemnet in Vietnam
                                                      • He was shown to either be lying or naive after declaring that victory was close in 1967 prior to Tet Offensive
                                                  • Backing of the public, when he won the 1964 election
                                                    • Didn't replace meberds of JFK's cabine, no fresh ideas
                                                      • Did not declare war, wanted to focus money in Great Society (media not bound by laws of warfare so unrestricted)
                                                        • Pleiku incident - ground troops were deployed in 1965
                                                          • 'Body count' to justify success, lost the battle for 'hearts and minds'
                                                            • Involvement in Vietnam
                                                              • Nixon 1969-1974 (Republican)
                                                              • Increases troop numbers to approx. half a million in April 1969
                                                                • Involvement in Vietnam
                                                                • Escalates the war by invading Cambodia and Laos (Madman Theory)
                                                                  • Bombs DRV and Linebacker II in December - cause anti-war demonstrations
                                                                    • Civil Rights Act, 1957, focused on the voting rights for blacks, limited act, six months in jail and fine if intimidation occured
                                                                      • Involvement in civil rights
                                                                      • Civil Rights Act, 1960, Monitor black voter registration, his 2 acts only increased voter registration by 3%
                                                                        • Involvement in civil rights
                                                                          • Civil Rights Act, 1964, outlawed segregation of any facility or public place, also made FEPC permanant
                                                                        • To Secure These Rights, 1947
                                                                          • Involvement in civil rights
                                                                            • Highlighted lynching
                                                                          • Considered police brutality
                                                                            • To Secure These Rights, 1947
                                                                              • Highlighted lynching
                                                                          • Concerned voting rights
                                                                            • Discrimination in the armed forces
                                                                              • Considered employment and education
                                                                                • Racial discrimination in the area of health
                                                                                  • Report claimed that segregation was causing enormous problems for blacks 'seperate but equal'
                                                                                    • There were a range of recommendations to overcome the problems identified  in the report. However some of these were unworkable.
                                                                                      • Voting Rights Act, 1965,Outlawed all 'tests' preventing blacks from voting. Ended the ability of local governments to deny black citizens their right to vote.
                                                                                        • Involvement in civil rights
                                                                                          • Civil Rights Act, 1964, outlawed segregation of any facility or public place, also made FEPC permanant
                                                                                      • Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 1965 and Higher Education Act, 1965, increased funding to education, acts helped the southern states
                                                                                        • Fair Housing Act, 1968, outlawed discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. No new powers to enforce the law, act was limited.
                                                                                          • Involvement in civil rights
                                                                                            • Kennedy slow to use his powers to improve. Birmingham campaign forced him to show decisive leadershipand fulfil his promise of a civil rights act. Not until the March on Washington that he threw his weight behind the bill.
                                                                                              • Involvement in civil rights

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