PHIL 3 revision booklet

detailed revision notes on Nietzsche

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Revision Check List
PHIL 4 _ Nietzsche and Beyond Good & Evil
This document is a STARTING point for your revision, it is m=not meant
to be used alone, but should complement your own revision, further
reading, class notes and handouts, and your own exam practice.
Hayley Rennie

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PHIL 4 Nietzsche
What the specification says:
Candidates should demonstrate an understanding of the following:
· Critique of past philosophers; motivational analysis, e.g. philosophy as expression of self-interest or prejudice
· The bewitchment of language; truth and interpretation
· The `correct' philosophical questions
· The new philosopher and his socio-intellectual status
· The notion of `superiority'
· The will to power
· The different morality. Master and slave morality.…read more

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Predicate: part of a sentence that adds something to the subject of the sentence. The example that follows in the main body
of the text should clarify.
Monistic: monism is the doctrine that all existence partakes of, or derives from, one form (in this case, the will to power).
Monistic theories are opposed to theories such as mind/matter dualism.…read more

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Motivational analysis
N argues that theoretical beliefs can be explained by a person's values, e.g., the belief in a transcendental
world can be explained in relation to belief about the value of truth.
Values are best explained as 'psychological demands for the preservation of a particular kind of life'.
Everyone strives for conditions in which they can 'achieve their maximum feeling of power'.
Metaphysical systems, therefore, are not constructed by pure reason, but are guided by the philosopher's
values.…read more

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Is 'the truth' transcendent of perspectives? N argues that we must abandon the image of the truth as
something to contrast with appearances. There are only 'appearances'. However, appearances are not
perspectives, but what perspectives are perspectives on.
An unconditional will to truth, part of the ascetic ideal, misrepresents the truth as unconditional, meaning
beyond perspective and of incomparable worth. New philosophers will place the value of truth in relation
to life, so their will to truth will not be unconditional.…read more

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Willing eternal return is also in tension with N's revulsion at ordinary human life.
The Will to Power
History is the history of various expressions of the will to power.
The metaphysical interpretation of the will to power is that everything, including physical forces,
expresses the will to power. However, while N raises this hypothesis, he never endorses it: and he
explicitly rejects its key premises.
In Human, all too human, N claims that only something with an intellect can have a will.…read more

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N's History of morality
N divides the history of morality into 'pre-moral', 'moral' and 'extra-moral' stages. The first identifies
the value of an action with its consequences, the second with its origin, then specifically its intention. The
third returns to the origin of action outside intention, and finally to the creation of new values.
stage pre-moral moral extra-moral
corresponding historical prehistoric (but still current epoch (within the period N claims is to
period existing in societies N 'modern' societies) come.…read more

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Herd morality is a development of slave morality, reinterpreting negative traits as positive and opposing
suffering, inequality, instinctual satisfaction and self-love.
By attempting to eliminate suffering, it undermines greatness, which needs suffering to develop. And the
fear of others undermines its own value of altruism.
As it has developed, herd morality has lost the ascetic ideal, which encouraged people to become great and
creative, so it has led to degeneration.…read more

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The sacrifice by individuals of their strongest instincts. This is
exemplified by the moral epoch and the life of Christian
ascetics. Abstaining from something one enjoys for lent would
be another example.
rung 1 The sacrifice of human beings; possibly even loved ones. This
is exemplified by prehistoric religions and certain Roman
religious practices such as those practised by the Emperor
Tiberius.…read more


Alice Bailey

this is PHIL4, not PHIL3! still very helpful for nietzsche though :)

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