Revision PHIL1

a detailed booklet summarising the key information needed for the PHIL 1 exam.

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Reason and Experience
This document is not enough when used alone, this is meant
to complement your own revision notes, your class folder,
your attendance to all revision lessons, and your exam
Hayley Rennie

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PHIL 1 Question 1: Reason and Experience
Important terms:
Inductive argument: arguments that move from premises about particular observations to
a conclusion which is a general principle e.g. the sun will always rise in the morning
Deductive argument: an argument in which the truth of the premises will guarantee a true
conclusion e.g.…read more

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Words are more than just `labels' for pictures, they need to be comprehended and
applied, this requires an innate ability
Innate Knowledge
Rationalism: the primacy or reason: in context of 17th century discoveries, many held
beliefs had to be rejected (the sun is not small; the earth is not at the centre of the
universe).…read more

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Hopper's searchlight': our mind is like a searchlight actively seeking to find and organise
our experiences into structures and KNOWLEDGE
PHIL 1 Question 4; The Idea of God
The ontological argument
A priori argument: concerned with `being', by definition must God exist?
Anselm in Proslogion
o Defines god as "aliquid quo nihil maius cogitari posit" ­ `that than which nothing
greater can be conceived/thought'
o Even a fool who denied God's existence accepts this definition of him.…read more

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He also points out the different meanings of existence, prime numbers and infinity
do not exist in the same way as chairs, surely God's existence could be similar to
that of concepts and numbers
The Origins of God
o Innateness:
o Descartes' trademark argument: God has implanted the idea of himself in us,
because of Descartes' `causal adequacy principle' we know we can not have
implanted this idea in our own minds, as a cause must be the same and greater than
the effect.…read more

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Immutability and perfection: he does not change, he can not change an=s this suggests he
could be improved; he can't as he is perfect.
o Omni benevolence: supreme goodness
o Eternal: outside time, more than no beginning or end. But for Swinburne and Hartshorne
(process Theology) God must be timeless rather than out of time, as it is necessary for
him to change to interact with his creation.
o Transcendence and immanence: distant from the world, incorporeal (non physical).…read more


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