PHIL 2 revision

a detailed booklet for PHIL 2 exam

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The Value of Art & God and the World
This document is not meant to be used alone; it is to complement
your own revision, your class folder and handouts, your own reading,
attendance of revision lessons, and your exam practice.
Hayley Rennie and Ian Boardman

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PHIL 2 Question 3: The Value of Art
We may find value in it, even though we may have different ideas as to what it Art is. So what
Constitutes Art?
The Philosophy of Art is often referred to as 'Aesthetics'.
We are interested in understanding the nature of the value judgements we make in relation to
Art.…read more

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It is this feeling which is the beauty of the object
These come from 'standards of Taste'- a collective human resource that leads to broad
consensus regarding Art
Seen through 'test of time'
Seen through collective wisdom of highly competent critics ­ 'delicacy of taste'
So Hume says that Aesthetic experiences are subjective, however if the way we feel about
something is distorted or we are mistaken about how we feel, then this could lead to the
experience being Objective.…read more

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Who should we eulogise? How do we link Art to talent? Is copying Artistic? Is that not how a child
begins an artistic journey? If Art represents the world and conveys truth, is this not some form of
copying anyway? Is there not skill nevertheless?
2 - Non-representational Art has value?
What does Abstract Art represent? Anything? Nothing? Yet it is still Art? Music may not be
representative, but is some of it not Art? Art is valued not just on how much it looks…read more

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Perhaps all that can be done is to come to a consensus of opinion?
Art - Emotion
· Good art is moving or otherwise captures a mood or feeling. We describe and appraise it using an affective vocabulary.…read more

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So if the art elicits good feelings of worth, such as charity, selflessness and love then it has a higher
value than those that bring about feelings of self indulgence, arrogance and selfishness.…read more

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Maybe it is both at once? The artist conveys the meaning, which the viewer then finds?
3 Problems with this view
1 ­ Emotion is Irrational
Emotional expression has not rationality and is therefore dangerous
Plato was concerned with this
Loss of control of Emotions, completely letting go, is not necessarily a good thing?
Is suicide a valid response to emotional trauma?
2 ­ The Artist is given a 'special' status
Deifying the Artist is problematic?
Does verifying 1 artists point of view, render others…read more

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Even if Art can express something, how Universal can this be? (link back to Kant and Hume)
We value Art because we are familiar with/ live within the context through which it is meant to be
For example, how things are valued may depend upon Religious affiliation?
Yet if Art affects us emotionally, irrespective of our moral and intellectual belief systems, then this
transcendence is exactly the reason why it is valuable?
Good Art may therefore be timeless and speak to those outside of…read more

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Does it add to artistic value?
The variation in formal aspects
Can all things that have form be classified as art?
Cookery? Haute Cuisine?
Fashion? Haute Couture?
Is it enough that food looks great, or clothes look great, if they are not practical? Are they Art if
they taste horrible or are uncomfortable to wear?
Is the naked human body Artistic or Pornographic? (Think Spencer Tunick ­ such as Sydney Opera
House Photo Shoot)
The notion of form
We are constantly engaged emotionally and Intellectually…read more

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Each Art from is different and therefore has different qualities?
Does that make one art form truer than another?
Is it problematic that there is not one type of form that applies to all art?
Does this mean that considering art in according to its form reduces its value?
Even within Art there are different subsections, do even they have the same formal aspects?
(different types of painting, music, film, writing etc.…read more


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