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In Books II, III, and IV, Plato identifies political justice as harmony in a
structured political body. An ideal society consists of three main classes of
people--producers (craftsmen, farmers, artisans, etc.), auxiliaries
(warriors), and guardians (rulers)
What does Plato define as political justice, and when is a society just? A…

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The parallels between the just society and the just individual run deep.

Each of the three classes of society, in fact, is dominated by one of the

three parts of the soul.
How do each of the 3 classes of society parallel the 3 parts of the soul? Producers are…

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One might notice that none of these arguments actually prove that justice
is desirable apart from its consequences--instead, they establish that
Do Plato's arguments that it is desirable to be just actually prove justice is always accompanied by true pleasure.
themselves to be correct? What is the other explanation? In…

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Justice is the advantage of the stronger because when stupid, weak
people behave in accordance with justice, they are disadvantaged, and
the strong (those who behave unjustly) are advantaged.
An alternate reading of Thrasymachus's bold statement (that justice is
solely the advantage of the stronger over the weak) makes his…

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The principle of specialization keeps the farmer from carpentering, and
the carpenter from farming. More important, it keeps both the farmer
and the carpenter from becoming warriors and rulers.
How does the principle of Specialisation allow for a just city? The principle of specialization separates society into three classes: the…

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OBJECT/FIELD: What is and isn't (Darker than knowledge, but clearer than
EFFECT: To know things fallibly (as opinion/belief is not the same as true
justified knowledge)
What is justice? Why should we be just? Book 1 sets up these challenges.
The interlocutors engage in a Socratic dialogue similar to…

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of society. Socrates points out that there is some incoherence in the idea
of harming people through justice.

At first, the only challenge was to define justice; now justice must be
defined and proven to be worthwhile. Socrates has three arguments to
employ against Thrasymachus' claim.
First, he makes Thrasymachus…

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parents and reared together, so that no one knows which children
descend from which adults.
At no other time in the year is sex permitted. If guardians have sex at an
undesignated time and a child results, the understanding is that this child
must be killed.
Socrates deals with a…

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In order to back up his claim that only philosophers can have knowledge,
Socrates paints a fascinating metaphysical and epistemological picture.
He divides all of existence up into three classes: what is completely //

what is in no way // and what both is and isn't. What is completely, he…

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That only "what is completely" is completely knowable is a difficult idea
to accept, even when we understand what Plato means to indicate by
speaking of the Forms.

Consider our beautiful woman. Remember that she is at the same time
Why is the claim that only "what is completely" is…


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