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  • Created by: tasmin
  • Created on: 31-03-13 14:23
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  • Reason and Experience
    • Empiricism
      • Hume
        • Simple and Complex Ideas - even though we believe we have had an original idea, it is just sense impressions amalgamated into a concept.
          • What about abstract concepts like justice and morality - we can not directly experience these?
          • Hume's missing shade of blue - if there was a shade of blue missing from a scale, wouldn't we be able to join sense impressions - if we can then Hume has to accept that we don't have to experience everything to have an idea of it.
          • The Trap of Solipsism - if we can't trust anything, we can only be sure of our own minds, how can we be sure we're not the only one who exists?
          • Scepticism - problem of induction - the turkey example.
          • Conceptual schemes - we cannot be sure of our sesnes alone, there must be some sort of predetermined mind in order to process the sense data.
        • Reason alone can give us inf - Descartes the cogito - I think therefore I am.
        • Hume's fork - matters of fact are better.
      • Inductive arguments.
        • Not 100% logically accurate - the Problem of Induction.
        • Gives us new information and is the basis of science.
        • Swan example.
      • A posteriori - after sense experience.
      • Tabula rasa - we are a blank slate at birth
      • Synthetic - not true by definition "all tomatoes are red"
      • Contingent truths - might have been otherwise - Churchill was not prime minister.
      • ants- need materials
    • Rationalism
      • Plato
        • Innate capacity to reason and maths
          • Meno the slave boy
          • Locke - not everyone can! So this doesn't apply.
      • Descartes
        • The cogito - knowledge which is sound found from pure reason.
          • Solipsism still applies.
          • No evidence that the "I" is the same as you.
      • Deductive arguments - Socrates example
        • The conclusion is 100% logically correct.
        • Doesn't tell us anything new.
      • Analytic - true by definition - "all bachelors are unmarried men" - a tautology
      • Innate ideas - God, morality, logic, reason, maths
      • Spider - no external materials
      • The ultimate source of knowledge is reason.
      • Necessary truths - true in all possible worlds.
    • Conceptual schemes
      • There must be some sort of predetermined mind for us to process sense impressions.
      • Karl Popper - the mind is like a searchlight.
      • "Thought without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind"
      • If we didn't have one there would be "blooming fuzzy confusion"
      • Library/book example
      • You cannot have a sense impression or uncatergorised.
        • Kant suggested there must be some fundamental categories that are applied to the raw data we recieve and these combine to give us sense exp. of the world.
          • This means that this scheme must be a priori as it is prerequisite for us to be to interpret process the world.
      • Our experiences are in the space but that your thoughts are not, but they are in time as a result he creates a 2 world theory of perception.
        • He says  that the NOUMENAL WORLD is the physical world we percieve and the PHENOMENAL WORLD is the world we create through  a combinations of conceptual scheme and sense experience.
      • Limitation - Kant says if 5 people in a room all percieve the world differently  but have the same conceptual scheme or mind setup to achieve this. But how does he know this? Surely as people could have different categories.
      • Nietzsche - circular argument - the category's are based on faculties  these have to be categorised. How is the mind structured/ Why are they different?
      • We don't need all the categoriues?so if we don't need all of them why do we need any of thenm?


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