Reason and Experience: Phil 1

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  • Reason and Experience: Phil 1
    • Innate Knowledge
      • Innate ideas or knowledge are those that exist in the mind that are not acquired from experience.
        • Some instincts are innate.
          • A baby knows how to suckle from it's mother.
          • Hume argued that this does not count as knowledge.
            • A baby knows how to suckle from it's mother.
            • Dualism
              • The mind and the body are two separate entities.
                • This makes instincts separate from knowledge and therefore not innate knowledge
                  • Hume argued that this does not count as knowledge.
                    • Dualism
                      • The mind and the body are two separate entities.
                        • This makes instincts separate from knowledge and therefore not innate knowledge
          • Condillac's Statue
            • If a statue had senses but no innate knowledge then it would be a "buzzing, blooming confusion"
        • Rationalism
          • The view that the ultimate source of knowledge is reason and a priori knowledge.
            • Mathematics knowledge is unshakable, clear and certain, so rationalist believe it should be applied to all human knowledge.
          • A priori knowledge is eternally true, necessary, known just by thinking and self-justifying.
          • A priori knowledge gives no knowledge of contingent truths, gives no empirical knowledge and gives no knowledge of natural sciences.
          • Descartes: rationalism seemed the most important thing after pursuing skepticism to a point of certainty.
            • Method of Doubt: illusion, dreaming and evil demon.
            • His sense experiences had deceived him before, he had taken things for certain which weren't.
        • Tautology
          • Analytic and necessary statements.
        • Introspection
          • Observations of one's own mental states and processes
            • Descartes' method of doubt
            • Neurath's Boat
              • An analogy to show we cannot repair the boat while it is on see (introspection is ineffective when alive) and can only be fixed on dry land (we can only examine our life when we are dead)
      • Conceptual Schemes
        • Kant's Synthesis
          • Kant says we must have conceptual schemes in order to organise our sense data.
            • "thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind"
            • The raw materials we gain through sense experience need structure in order to categorise them.
          • Noumenal
            • Meaning a reality in itself, the anatomy of the world outside of the structure of the human intellect.
          • Phenomenal
            • The world as structured by the mind.
          • These are the links between Kant’s conceptual scheme with Empiricism and Rationalism
            • The categories of understanding, our CONCEPTUAL SCHEME in the mind, acts almost as a filter to the noumenal world, and so is why we see what we do in the phenomenal world and know nothing of the noumenal world.
              • Kant's Synthesis
                • Kant says we must have conceptual schemes in order to organise our sense data.
                  • "thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind"
                  • The raw materials we gain through sense experience need structure in order to categorise them.
                • Noumenal
                  • Meaning a reality in itself, the anatomy of the world outside of the structure of the human intellect.
                • Phenomenal
                  • The world as structured by the mind.
                • These are the links between Kant’s conceptual scheme with Empiricism and Rationalism
                  • The categories of understanding, our CONCEPTUAL SCHEME in the mind, acts almost as a filter to the noumenal world, and so is why we see what we do in the phenomenal world and know nothing of the noumenal world.
                    • Kant agrees that all knowledge starts with sensory experience (which in turn are only possible with the innate categories of Understanding). However, this knowledge is always shaped by our conceptual schemes.
                • We cannot help but organise the  noumenal world into our categoried within the mind. We have a priori knowledge that organises the a posteriori knowledge
                  • A priori synthetic knowledge - a join between Rationalism and Empiricism
              • Kant agrees that all knowledge starts with sensory experience (which in turn are only possible with the innate categories of Understanding). However, this knowledge is always shaped by our conceptual schemes.
          • We cannot help but organise the  noumenal world into our categoried within the mind. We have a priori knowledge that organises the a posteriori knowledge
            • A priori synthetic knowledge - a join between Rationalism and Empiricism
        • It seems that there must be some sort or scheme that organises the content of our thoughts.
          • What we see when looking at the picture depends on Whether the schema organises it as a duck or a rabbit.
            • This suggests that what we see is shaped by the conceptual schemes that we have. What is true to us depends on our conceptual scheme, and what is true for others depends on theirs.
      • Mind as a tabula rasa
        • Locke: meaning 'blank slate'
          • At birth, our minds are empty of all ideas and knowledge, which must be filled through experience
            • Yet we have ideas of things that we have never experienced
              • Hume: We can have simple ideas for sense experiences that can create complex ideas
            • Empiricism
              • The ultimate source of knowledge is experience.
              • We gain knowledge a posteroiri
                • Hume: our ideas are copies of the original sense experience.
                  • We can trace every concept back to its original sense impression experience. If not, we must accept the concept as empty or non-existent.
                    • "a blind man can form no notion of colours; a deaf man of sounds
                  • Hume's Fork
                    • Relation of Ideas: a priori, analytic, true by definition, trivial, logical necessity, deductive.
                      • "all sons have fathers"
                    • Matters of Fact: a posteriori, synthetic, test through senses, substantive, contingent, inductive
                      • "the chair is blue"
              • The Problem of Solipsism
                • If all we are absolutely certain of is experience of sense data, then it seems we can never be certain of anything else existing.
                • ideas as sense impressions are exclusive: we cannot ever know of other people's as we do not have their experiences.
                  • If all we are absolutely certain of is experience of sense data, then it seems we can never be certain of anything else existing.
                  • Ideas can never be shared with others.

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