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F335 Chemistry by Design: Agriculture and Industry
Formulae and Equations

(a) use the concept of amount of substance to perform calculations involving:
Molecular Empirical Formula:
formulae 1. List all the elements in the compound.
2. Underneath them, write their masses.
3. Divide each mass by their molar mass to find…

Page 2

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Agriculture and Industry

(b) write and interpret balanced chemical equations (including ionic equations) with state symbols

Ionic Equations:
Ionic equation are only used for precipitation
reactions and only the reactants that are involved
in the reaction are written. The other ions are
called spectator ions .…

Page 3

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Agriculture and Industry



Bonding and Structure

(d) suggest and explain the properties of substances in terms of their structure and bonding and position of
their elements in the Periodic Table; draw and use simple electron `dotandcross' diagrams to show
how atoms bond through ionic, covalent and…

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Agriculture and Industry
Bonding 2 3 4 3 2 5 6
Pairs
Lone 0 0 0 1 2 0 0
Pairs

Bond
180o
120o Approx 109o
Approx 109o
Approx 109o
90o
and 120o
90o
Angle




Rates of Reaction

(f) describe and explain the effect of temperature,…

Page 5

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Agriculture and Industry
Concentratio No effect on the equilibrium constant.
n
Pressure No effect on the equilibrium constant.
Temperature If the temperature change means that more products are formed, the equilibrium constant
will increase.
If the temperature change means that more reactants are formed, the equilibrium…

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Agriculture and Industry
+
Ammonium ions NH4 (aq) 3 Bacteria and microorganisms in the soil

Nitrate(III) ions NO2 (aq) +3 Nitrifying bacteria in the soil, bacteria in root
nodules

Nitrate(V) ions NO3(aq) +5 Nitrifying bacteria in the soil, bacteria in root
nodules
Nitrate(I) oxide N
2O…

Page 7

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Agriculture and Industry











Inorganic Chemistry and the Periodic Table

(l) recall the following aspects of nitrogen chemistry: structure and bonding in nitrogen gas, ammonia and
the ammonium ion, the appearance and names of the oxides of nitrogen, N 2O, NO, NO
2

Nitrogen Gas (N2):
Nitrate(I)…

Page 8

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Agriculture and Industry

(m) calculate from given data the percentage yield and atom economy of an industrial process and suggest
the effect of the process on the environment

Percentage Yield Atom Economy
Actual Mass Mass of useful product
P ercentage Y ield = Theoretical Mass ×…

Page 9

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Agriculture and Industry

(p) discuss the facts and ethics associated with the ways in which chemists are involved in developments to
improve food production, including:
(i) providing extra nutrients
Adding fertiliser to the soil provides crops with extra nutrients , improving plant growth and increasing crop…

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