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Revision Booklet
Jay Smith

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a) Use the concept of amount of substance to perform calculations involving:
molecular formulae, masses of reagents, volumes of gases, concentrations of
solutions, percentage composition, percentage yield and balanced chemical

No of moles = mass in grams

Molecular mass

No of moles = volume (dm3) x Concentration

1 mole…

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e) Describe the shapes of molecules and ions with up to 6 electron pairs,
draw dot-cross diagrams and explain these shapes in terms of electron
repulsion theory.

As electrons are all negatively charged (and negative charges repel one
another), electrons repel one another until they are as far apart as…

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f) Describe and explain the
effect of temperature, pressure and catalysts on the rate of reaction.

An increase in temperature generally increases the rate of reaction. This is
because it means that the particles are given more energy. This means that it is

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more likely for two particles to collide with an energy above that of the
activation enthalpy, meaning a reaction is more likely to occur!

An Increase in pressure also increases the rate of reaction. This is because it
means there are more particles in the same area. The result of…

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however the maintenance costs may be very expensive, therefore, working at a
lower, compromised temperature may be better.

If the product is produced at lower temperatures, it will produce more product
at lower temperatures. However, the rate of reaction at this low temperature
may be too slow. Therefore, a compromised…

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Nitrate (III) ion NO2- (aq) +3 -Nitrifying bacteria in
-Root nodules in
Ammonium Ion NH4+ (aq) -3 legumes.
-Bacteria and
microorganisms in soil
Dinitrogen (I) - Denitrifying bacteria in
Oxide N2O (g) +1 the soil
(Nitrous oxide)
Nitrogen (II) -Car Engines
Oxide NO (g) +2 - Thunderstorms
(Nitrogen (lightning…

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Appearance of Nitrogen Oxides:

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2): A brown and poisonous gas.

Nitrogen Oxide (NO): A colourless gas.

Nitrous Oxide (N2O): A colourless gas.

m) Calculate from given data the percentage yield and the atom economy of
an industrial process and suggest the effect of the process on the

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Key points:

For a process to be cost effective, it's energy costs, costs of raw
materials and to keep the plant running etc, it must produce enough
product to cover these costs and enough profit.
By-products need to checked carefully. If they are hazardous they need
to be dealt with…


Rebecca Johnson


Hi! Great help, but are there any answers anywhere??

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