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Revision Booklet
Jay Smith…read more

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Use the concept of amount of substance to perform calculations involving:
molecular formulae, masses of reagents, volumes of gases, concentrations of
solutions, percentage composition, percentage yield and balanced chemical
equations.…read more

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Describe the shapes of molecules and ions with up to 6 electron pairs,
draw dot-cross diagrams and explain these shapes in terms of electron
repulsion theory.
As electrons are all negatively charged (and negative charges repel one
another), electrons repel one another until they are as far apart as
possible from one another. This is the explanation for all the bond angles and
shapes of molecules.
H2O is bent in shape and has a bond angle of 104.5 degrees.…read more

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Describe and explain the
effect of temperature, pressure and catalysts on the rate of reaction.
An increase in temperature generally increases the rate of reaction. This is
because it means that the particles are given more energy.…read more

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An Increase in pressure also increases the rate of reaction. This is because it
means there are more particles in the same area. The result of this is more
collisions between particles, meaning the amount of successful collisions in a
time period is likely to be increased.
A Catalyst also increases the rate of reaction. It does this as it lowers the
activation enthalpy of reaction.…read more

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If the product is produced at lower temperatures, it will produce more product
at lower temperatures. However, the rate of reaction at this low temperature
may be too slow. Therefore, a compromised higher temperature may be used to
increase the rate of production.…read more

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Nitrate (III) ion NO2- (aq) +3 -Nitrifying bacteria in
-Root nodules in
Ammonium Ion NH4+ (aq) -3 legumes.
-Bacteria and
microorganisms in soil
Dinitrogen (I) - Denitrifying bacteria in
Oxide N2O (g) +1 the soil
(Nitrous oxide)
Nitrogen (II) -Car Engines
Oxide NO (g) +2 - Thunderstorms
(Nitrogen (lightning strikes)
Monoxide) - Denitrifying Bacteria
Nitrogen (IV)
Oxide NO2 (g) +4 - Oxidation of NO in
(Nitrogen atmosphere.
OXIDATION: Is the losing of electrons. REDUCTION: is the gain of
electrons.…read more

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Appearance of Nitrogen Oxides:
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2): A brown and poisonous gas.
Nitrogen Oxide (NO): A colourless gas.
Nitrous Oxide (N2O): A colourless gas.
m) Calculate from given data the percentage yield and the atom economy of
an industrial process and suggest the effect of the process on the
environment.…read more

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Key points:
For a process to be cost effective, it's energy costs, costs of raw
materials and to keep the plant running etc, it must produce enough
product to cover these costs and enough profit.
By-products need to checked carefully. If they are hazardous they need
to be dealt with in a responsible way, i.e. converting them to
non-hazardous products or recycling them.…read more


Rebecca Johnson

Hi! Great help, but are there any answers anywhere??

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