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F335 Chemistry by Design: Medicines by Design
Bonding and Structure

(a) describe and explain the structure and action of a given pharmacologically active material in terms of:
(i) the pharmacophore and groups that modify it
Pharmacophore ­ the part of the substrate that binds to the receptor site. It is…

Page 2

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Medicines by Design

(c) recall and use systematic nomenclature for naming and interpreting names of compounds met earlier in
the specification (AS and A2) (synoptic)
Name General Formula Example Nomenclature
Acid Anhydride RCOOCOR' oic anhydride


Acyl Chloride RCOCl yl chloride


Alcohol ­ C
nH2n+1OH

ol
Primary…

Page 3

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Medicines by Design
Ketone C
nH2n+1O

one



Organic Reactions

(d) recall organic reactions and reaction conditions mentioned elsewhere in the specification (AS and A2)
(synoptic); use these with any further given reactions, to suggest and explain synthetic routes for
preparing organic compounds including simple examples of…

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Medicines by Design
Hydrolysis Involves using water to split apart a molecule creating two smaller ones. It is the opposite of
condensation.





Reaction Mechanisms

(f) use and explain the following terms:
Radical An atom, molecule or ions that has an unpaired electron.
Electrophil A positive ion…

Page 5

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Medicines by Design
Nucleophilic 1. The cyanide ion is the
Addition nucleophile and is attracted to
the carbon atom in the carbonyl
group, which carries a partial
positive charge.
2. A new CC bond forms, and pair
of electrons in the C=O bond
moves onto the…

Page 6

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Medicines by Design
recognise where E/Z isomerism occurs, explaining it in terms of lack of free rotation about C=C bonds when
there are two different groups on each carbon; draw and interpret diagrams to represent E/Z isomers for
alkenes which have the same groups on both…

Page 7

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Medicines by Design
being offered as an incentive, but this could be seen as taking advantage of the poor who need the money. Some
people think that pharmaceutical companies have too much influence over the drug approval process, claiming
that test results can easily be skewed…

Page 8

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F335 Chemistry by Design: Medicines by Design
0 adjacent proton 1 peak Singlet
1 adjacent protons 2 peaks of equal height Doublet
2 adjacent protons 3 peaks of 1:2:1 height ratio Triplet
3 adjacent protons 4 peaks of 1:2:2:1 height ratio Quartet

If there are n adjacent protons, we see…

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