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Meeting the demand for food with our ever growing population can be achieved by making the most
efficient use of existing agricultural land ­ particularly by improving crop varieties and planting
techniques, and making sensible use of added plant nutrients and pesticides.…read more

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Group 5
Group 5 is in the middle of the p block.…read more

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Ammonia, NH3 is a nitrogen hydride.
It is formed by the reaction between N2 and H2.
The N atom forms covalent bonds by sharing one of it's electrons witch each of the 3 H atoms.
This leaves a lone pair of electrons.
This makes it available to form dative covalent bonds.
Ammonia acts readily as a base and forms dative covalent bonds to H+ ions to give the ammonium ion.…read more

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Nitrogen Oxides
Nitrogen forms several oxides:
Name and Formula Appearance Origin
Nitrogen (II) oxide Colourless gas, turns to Combustion processes,
NO brown NO2 in air thunderstorms,
denitrifying bacteria in soil
Nitrogen (IV) oxide Brown gas (toxic) From oxidation of NO in
NO2 atmosphere
Dinitrogen (I) oxide Colourless gas Formed in the soil by
N2O denitrifying bacteria
Two kinds of nitrate ions are involved in the nitrogen cycle: nitrate (II) and nitrate (V).…read more

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Organic farmers are governed by clear guidelines in the ways that they can add nitrogen to the soil.
The law requires food solid as `organic' to come from growers who are registered and approved by organic
certification bodies.
They must adhere to the Soil Association's standards during production.…read more

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Dynamic Equilibrium
A chemical reaction has a forward reaction and a backwards reaction.
It can go from reactants to products or products to reactants.
When the rate of the forward reaction is the same as the rate of the backwards reaction , a system is
said to be in dynamic equilibrium.
Once a dynamic equilibrium has been established, the concentrations of reactants and products
remain unchanged.
However, the forward reaction and the reverse reaction do not stop ­ they continue at the same rate.…read more

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If a system is at equilibrium and a change is made in any of the conditions, then the system responds to
counteract the change as much as possible
Temperature change Equilibrium shift
Increase Position of equilibrium shifts in the direction of the endothermic
Decrease Position of equilibrium shifts in the direction of the endothermic
Concentration change Equilibrium Shift
Increasing reactant To the right (decreases reactants)
Increasing product To the left (decreases products)
Decreasing reactant To the left (increases reactants)
Decreasing product…read more

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High temperatures make reactions more expensive to carry out because of the cost of furl.
Reactions go faster at higher temperatures, meaning more product will be made.
Higher pressure makes gaseous reactions go faster.
To create a high pressure, gas must be pumped into the reaction vessel.
Running powerful pumps uses a lot of energy and is expensive.
High pressure vessels can also be very dangerous.…read more


Ivan Taptygin

Great notes! But are they not finishes? I only have 16 pages and then like 20 blank pages... :/ 

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