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F335 Chemistry by Design: The Oceans
Bonding and Structure

(a) explain the hydrogen bonding in water and explain the usual physical properties of water that arise
from this
Hydrogen bonding in water is particularly strong because there are two lone pairs of electrons and two positively
charged hydrogen atoms per…

Page 2

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F335 Chemistry by Design: The Oceans

(b) explain the factors (including intermolecular bonds and iondipole forces) determining the relative
solubility of a solute in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents and explain the hydration of ions
Bonds will only dissolve if the bonds between the solute and the solvent are stronger than…

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F335 Chemistry by Design: The Oceans


When we are dealing with solvents other than water, we use enthalpy of solvation, Hsolv ,
but the same rules apply.

(ii) describe the solution of an ionic solid in terms of an enthalpy cycle involving these terms
Ions must be separated from the…

Page 4

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F335 Chemistry by Design: The Oceans




(iii) use these enthalpy cycles to perform calculations



















(d) explain entropy changes in a qualitative manner, interpreting entropy as a measure of the number of
ways that molecules and their associated energy quanta can be arranged
Entropy ­ a measure of the number of…

Page 5

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F335 Chemistry by Design: The Oceans
S surr = - H
T
(ii) be able to perform calculations using these expressions
1
Example: Find the total entropy change when water freezes at 10o C (263K), using Ssys = 22.0 J K

mol1 and H
1
= 6.01 KJ mol .…

Page 6

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F335 Chemistry by Design: The Oceans
Periodicity:
Group 0 elements, with a full outer shell of electrons, have high first ionisation enthalpies ­ they are difficult to
ionise and are very unreactive. Group 1 elements, with only one outer shell electron, have low ionisation
enthalpies ­ they are easy to…

Page 7

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F335 Chemistry by Design: The Oceans
Every acid has a conjugate base and every base has a conjugate acid. They are called conjugate acidbase pair.





(k) explain and use the terms strong acid, strong base, writing equations for their ionisation in water

Strong acids have a strong tendency to donate…

Page 8

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F335 Chemistry by Design: The Oceans
pH = - log[H +(aq)]

(i) strong acids


Since the reaction with water goes to completion effectively, the amount in moles of H+ (aq) ions is equal to the

amount in moles of acid (HA) put into a solution.

Example: For a 0.01 mol…

Page 9

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F335 Chemistry by Design: The Oceans
(i) explain the meaning of the term buffer
Buffer ­ a solution that can resist changes in pH despite the addition of acid or alkali. Their pH stays
approximately constant even if small amounts of acid or alkali are added.

(ii) explain how buffers…

Page 10

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F335 Chemistry by Design: The Oceans





(o) discuss the global influence of the dissolving of carbon dioxide in water, discuss and explain the benefits
and risks associated with various approaches to reducing atmospheric CO 2 levels including: more

economical use of fuels, the use of alternative fuels (including hydrogen), capture…

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