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F334 Chemistry of Materials: What's in a Medicine?
Equilibria

(a) describe acids in terms of the BrønstedLowry theory as proton donors, and bases as proton acceptors, and
identify the proton donor and proton acceptor in an acidbase reaction
An acid is a proton donor.
A base is a proton acceptor…

Page 2

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: What's in a Medicine?

Bonding and Structure

(b) draw and interpret simple electron 'dot and cross' diagrams to sow how atoms bond through ionic, covalent
and dative covalent bonds and be able to describe a simple model of metallic bonding
What happens to electrons
Ionic Gains…

Page 3

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: What's in a Medicine?

BondAngle 180o 120o Approx 109o
Approx 109o Approx 109o
90o and 120o
90o
recall the typical physical properties (melting point, solubility in water, ability to conduct electricity)
characteristic of giant lattice (metallic, ionic covalent network) and simple molecular structure types
Giant Ionic…

Page 4

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: What's in a Medicine?



(d) use systematic nomenclature to name and interpret:
Diols e.g. butane1,4diol


Carboxylic oic acid
Acids
e.g. methanoic acid


Dicarboxyli dioic acid
c Acids
e.g. propanedioic acid


Esters e.g. propyl butanoate



Aldehydes al

e.g. ethanal, butanal

Ketones one

e.g. propanone, pentanone




Organic Reactions…

Page 5

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: What's in a Medicine?


Only carboxylic acids have a pH low enough to react with carbonates.


(g) describe the reaction of alcohols with carboxylic acids in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid or
concentrated hydrochloric acid to form esters
Carboxylic Acid + Alcohol Ester + Water…

Page 6

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: What's in a Medicine?
Oxidation of Primary Alcohols:
Primary Alcohol Aldehyde Carboxylic
Acid
Acidified potassium dichromate (VI)
Reflux
Carboxylic Acid Aldehyde
Acidified potassium dichromate (VI)
Distil

Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols:
Secondary Alcohol Ketone
Acidified potassium dichromate (VI)
Reflux



Making Cyanohydrin:
Aldehyde/Ketone + Hydrogen Cyanide
Cyanohydrin



(j)…

Page 7

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: What's in a Medicine?

(k) describe the mechanism of the nucleophilic addition reaction between a carbonyl compound and hydrogen
cyanide, using 'curly arrows' and bond polarities













Applications of Organic Chemistry

(l) understand that more effective medicines can be obtained by modifying the structure of existing medicines…

Page 8

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: What's in a Medicine?
However, on closer inspection, a condensation reaction is actually an addition reaction followed by an elimination
reaction.
(i) recall and understand that rearrangement and addition reactions have a higher atom economy than
substitution and condensation reactions, which have a higher atom economy…

Page 9

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: What's in a Medicine?


Modern Analytical Techniques

(p) describe the technique of thinlayer chromatography (TLC), including location of spots using iodine or
ultraviolet radiation, and interpret results in terms of number of spots and matching heights or Rf values with

known compounds; understand that chromatography can…

Page 10

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: What's in a Medicine?
Type of stationary phase


(q) interpret and predict mass spectra: identify the M+ peak and explain that it indicates the M r; explain how the

+
molecular formula can be worked out from the highresolution value of the M peak; recall that…

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