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F215 Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
5.2.2 Biotechnology

(a) state that biotechnology is the industrial use of living organisms (or parts of living organisms) to
produce food, drugs or other products
Biotechnology ­ the industrial use of living organisms (or parts of living organisms) to produce food, drugs or…

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F215 Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies



(d) describe how enzymes can be immobilised
Immobilisation of enzymes ­ where enzymes are held, separated from the reaction mixture. Substrate
molecules can bind to the enzyme molecules and the products formed go back into the reaction mixture leaving
the enzyme molecules in…

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F215 Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
Continuous:
o Nutrients are added to the fermentation tank.
o Products are removed from the fermentation tank at regular intervals/continuously.
o For example, insulin.
Batch Continuous
Advantages Easy to set up and maintain. Faster growth rate as nutrients are
If contamination occurs, only…

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F215 Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
pH Changes in pH within the fermentation rank can reduce the activity of enzymes and so
reduce growth rates.






























(i) explain the importance of asepsis in the manipulation of microorganisms
Asepsis ­ the absence of unwanted microorganisms.
Aseptic technique ­ refers to the…

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F215 Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
Carried out in a fume cupboard or a laminar flow Sterilising all nutrient media before adding to the
cabinet where air circulation carries any airborne fermenter prevents introduction of
contaminants away. contaminants .
Cultures of microorganisms are kept closed where Fine filters on…

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