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F215 Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
5.2.3 Genomes and Gene Technologies

(a) outline the steps involved in sequencing the genome of an organism
Genome ­ all the genetic information within an organism OR all the genetic information within an individual.
Genome sequencing ­ the technique used to give the…

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F215 Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
and regulatory sequences of different organisms will help us to understand the role of genetic information in a
range of areas including health, behaviour and evolutionary relationships between organisms.
Comparative gene mapping has a wide range of applications:
The identification of genes for…

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F215 Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies



(f) outline how DNA fragments can be separated by size using electrophoresis
Electrophoresis ­ used to separate DNA fragments based on their size . This method relies on the substances
within the mixture having a charge . When a current is applied, charged…

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F215 Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies

The DNA polymerase enzyme is described as ` thermophilic' because it is not denatured by the extreme
temperatures used in the process. The enzyme is derived from a thermophilic bacterium , Thermus aquaticus
( Taq ), which grows in hot springs at a…

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F215 Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
Rstrain and heattreated Sstrain of pneumococcus = mouse dies .
The Rstrain was capable of taking up DNA from their surroundings (DNA from Sstrain), so synthesis of the
toxic protein occurred and killed the mouse.
(l) describe the advantages to microorganisms of the…

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F215 Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
6. The plasmids are mixed with bacteria, some of which take up the recombinant plasmids .
7. The bacteria are grown on agar plates, where each bacterial cell grows to produce a colony .

(o) outline the process involved in the genetic engineering…

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F215 Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
Able to transplant organs that you could only Medical concerns about possible disease transfer
obtain from humans that are no longer alive, e.g. between the pig and the human.
heart. Some animal welfare groups strongly oppose
Pigs organs are roughly the same size…

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F215 Module 2: Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
There are difficulties in getting the allele into the More straightforward, but considered unethical to
genome in a functioning state . Liposomes are used but engineer human embryos . It is not possible to know
these may be inefficient. whether the allele has…

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