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OCR Biology A2 Unit 2 Module 2
Notes-Biotechnology and Gene

Clones in nature:
CLONE: Gene cells of whole organisms that carry identical genetic material because they
are derived from the same original DNA.
Prokaryotes ­ divide by binary fission, DNA replicates and the cell divides into two.
Eukaryotes ­…

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Root suckers or basal sprouts appear within 2 months of destruction.
Suckers grow from meristem tissue in the trunk close to the ground (least damage is
likely to occur).

Advantages of Elm vegetative propagation:
Root suckers help elm spread (grow around original trunk)
Suckers grow in a clonal patch

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Taking Cuttings


Large Scale Artificial Propagation Using Tissue Culture:

Some plants do not reproduce well from cuttings or grafting, and those methods cannot
produce a large number of plants using plant tissue culture to create large quantities of
cloned plants from a small quantity of plant material is more…

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The growing plants will then be transferred to a greenhouse to be acclimatised and
grown before they're planted

Advantages Disadvantages

Farmers know what the crop plant No genetic variation occurs, creating a
produced will be like monoculture so they are all prone to any
new environmental change e.g. pest,

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Nuclear transfer:
Is when the offspring is genetically identical to the parent. e.g. Dolly the sheep.
1. A full differentiated cell is taken from the parent mammal.
2. An egg cell is removed from another animal of the same species. The egg cell has its
nucleus removed.
3. The…

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Genetically modified animals can be quickly Unclear if nuclear material of adult cells will
reproduced. remain healthy in the long term, premature aging
(dolly the sheep).

Non-productive cloning:
Using clones to generate new cells, tissues and organs.
Replace damaged by diseases or accidents body tissues/organs.
Advantages of nonreproductive cloning:

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Genetically engineered
Grow well at low temperatures
Not dependent on climate
Generate purer products
Grown using nutrient materials toxic or useless to humans.

Purpose of biotechnical Examples Organisms Involved
The production of foods Cheese and yogurtmaking Bacterial growth in milk change flavour and
texture to make different food. It…

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The bioremediation of waste Waste water treatment A variety of bacterial and fungi use organic waste
products in water, nutrients makes the waste harmless.

The Growth Curve:
CULTURE: A growth of microorganisms may be a single species or a mixture of species.
Microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such…

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Metabolism is a process, metabolites are the products:

METABOLISM: The sum total of all of the chemical reactions that go in an organism.
New cells and cellular components
Hormones and enzymes
Waste products

Primary and secondary metabolites:
Primary Metabolites: Substances produced by an organism as part of its normal growth…

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o Type and time of nutrient addition ­ growth of microorganisms requires a nutrient
supply including carbon, nitrogen and other essential vitamins and minerals. Timing of
addition can be manipulated to whether secondary or primary metabolites are wanted.
o Oxygen concentration organisms grow under aerobic conditions so need oxygen.


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