Biotechnology OCR

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OCR Biology A2 Unit 2 Module 2
Notes-Biotechnology and Gene
Clones in nature:
CLONE: Gene cells of whole organisms that carry identical genetic material because they
are derived from the same original DNA.
Prokaryotes ­ divide by binary fission, DNA replicates and the cell divides into two.
Eukaryotes ­ asexual reproduction via mitosis. The genetic material replicates and
separates to form two new nuclei each containing
exact copy of original DNA.
Multicellular organismscells produced via mitosis
can grow into new separate organisms (spider plant).
Advantages of asexual reproduction:
Quick, allows organisms to reproduce rapidly and
take advantage of environment resources.
Completed if sexual reproduction fails or is not
All offspring have the genetic information to survive, in
their environment.
Disadvantage of asexual reproduction:
Does not produce any genetic variety.
Parental weakness passed on to offspring.
Diseasecausing organisms occur all genetically identical plants die
No resistance.
Natural vegetative propagation in plants:
VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION: The production of structure in an organism that can grow into
new individual organisms. These offspring are clones of the parent.
Is a form of natural cloning.
The offspring plants are genetically identical to the parent plant. The type of reproduction
is asexual the new cells are produced by mitosis.
Many plants have methods of reproducing asexually, by separation of some part of the
plant body, which can then develop into a separate plant.
The English Elm:
Adapted to reproduce asexually following damage to the parent
Allows species to survive catastrophes such as disease or burning.

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Root suckers or basal sprouts appear within 2 months of destruction.
Suckers grow from meristem tissue in the trunk close to the ground (least damage is
likely to occur).
Advantages of Elm vegetative propagation:
Root suckers help elm spread (grow around original trunk)
Suckers grow in a clonal patch
Puts out new suckers so the patch continues to expand as far
as resources allow.
Disadvantages of Elm Vegetative propagation:
Dutch elm disease.…read more

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The growing plants will then be transferred to a greenhouse to be acclimatised and
grown before they're planted
Advantages Disadvantages
Farmers know what the crop plant No genetic variation occurs, creating a
produced will be like monoculture so they are all prone to any
new environmental change e.g. pest,
disease. For example the Irish potato
famine in 18451851.…read more

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Nuclear transfer:
Is when the offspring is genetically identical to the parent. e.g. Dolly the sheep.
1. A full differentiated cell is taken from the parent mammal.
2. An egg cell is removed from another animal of the same species. The egg cell has its
nucleus removed.
3. The cell being cloned is injected into the empty egg cell. They are fused together.
4. Reconstructed cell divides and is implanted into a surrogate mother.
5.…read more

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Genetically modified animals can be quickly Unclear if nuclear material of adult cells will
reproduced. remain healthy in the long term, premature aging
(dolly the sheep).
Non-productive cloning:
Using clones to generate new cells, tissues and organs.
Replace damaged by diseases or accidents body tissues/organs.
Advantages of nonreproductive cloning:
Genetically identical to individual's cells means implants will not be `rejected', the
immune system will recognise it a not foreign.
Stop the problems of waiting for donor organs to come available for transplant.…read more

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Genetically engineered
Grow well at low temperatures
Not dependent on climate
Generate purer products
Grown using nutrient materials toxic or useless to humans.
Purpose of biotechnical Examples Organisms Involved
The production of foods Cheese and yogurtmaking Bacterial growth in milk change flavour and
texture to make different food. It also prevents
food spoilage
Mycoprotein (Quorn)
Growth of specific fungus in culture. Fungal
produced separated and processed as food.
Naturally brewed soya sauce Roasted soya beans are fermented with yeast of
fungi.…read more

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Metabolism is a process, metabolites are the products:
METABOLISM: The sum total of all of the chemical reactions that go in an organism.
New cells and cellular components
Hormones and enzymes
Waste products
Primary and secondary metabolites:
Primary Metabolites: Substances produced by an organism as part of its normal growth e.g.
amino acids, proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, ethanol and lactate.
The production of primary
metabolite matched the
growth in population of the
organism.…read more

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Type and time of nutrient addition ­ growth of microorganisms requires a nutrient
supply including carbon, nitrogen and other essential vitamins and minerals. Timing of
addition can be manipulated to whether secondary or primary metabolites are wanted.
o Oxygen concentration organisms grow under aerobic conditions so need oxygen.
Lack of oxygen leads to unwanted production of substances and reduced growth rate.
o pH Changes in pH within the fermentation tank can reduce the activity of enzymes
and thus growth rates.…read more


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