A2 Biology Control, Genomes and Environment (OCR F215)

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Biology F215
Contents
Cellular Control and Variation............................................................................................................ 1
Cellular Control.............................................................................................................................. 1
DNA structure ............................................................................................................................ 1
Genetic Code ............................................................................................................................. 1
Protein synthesis ....................................................................................................................... 2
Mutations .................................................................................................................................. 4
Lac Operon ................................................................................................................................ 5
Body Plans ................................................................................................................................. 6
Apoptosis .................................................................................................................................. 6
Meiosis and Variation .................................................................................................................... 7
Mitosis summary ....................................................................................................................... 7
Meiosis ...................................................................................................................................... 8
Genetic terminology ................................................................................................................ 10
Genetic diagrams ..................................................................................................................... 11
Chi squared test ....................................................................................................................... 13
Variation.................................................................................................................................. 14
Hardy-Weinberg principle ........................................................................................................ 15
Evolution ................................................................................................................................. 16
Speciation ................................................................................................................................ 17
Concepts of species ................................................................................................................. 18
Artificial selection .................................................................................................................... 18
Biotechnology and Gene Technologies ............................................................................................ 19
Cloning in Plants and Animals ...................................................................................................... 19
Reproductive and non-reproductive cloning ............................................................................ 19
Natural clones in plants ........................................................................................................... 20
Artificial clones in plants .......................................................................................................... 21
Artificial clones of animals ....................................................................................................... 22
Biotechnology.............................................................................................................................. 23
Why microorganisms ............................................................................................................... 23
Standard growth curve ............................................................................................................ 23

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34
Metabolites ............................................................................................................................. 24
Large scale fermenters............................................................................................................. 25
Immobilised enzymes .............................................................................................................. 26
Genomes and Gene Technologies ................................................................................................ 27
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).............................................................................................. 28
Restriction enzymes................................................................................................................. 29
Electrophoresis ........................................................................................................................ 30
DNA probes ............................................................................................................................. 30
DNA sequencing ...................................................................................................................... 31
Genetic engineering................................................................................................................. 33
Genetic engineering of Insulin ................................................................................................. 35
Genetic engineering of Golden Rice ......................................................................................... 36
Xenotransplantation ................................................................................................................ 37
Gene Therapy .......................................................................................................................... 37
Ethical concerns of genetic manipulation ................................................................................. 38
Ecosystems and Sustainability ......................................................................................................... 39
Ecosystems .................................................................................................................................. 39
Energy flow.............................................................................................................................. 39
Succession ...............................................................................................................................…read more

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34
Muscular movement................................................................................................................ 57
Fight or flight ........................................................................................................................... 63
Animal behaviour ........................................................................................................................ 64
Innate behaviour ..................................................................................................................... 64
Learned behaviour ................................................................................................................... 65
Social behaviour ...................................................................................................................... 67
Dopamine ................................................................................................................................…read more

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34
Cellular Control and Variation
Cellular Control
DNA structure
Deoxyribonucleic acid
A polymer of nucleotide subunits
4 nucleotides, each with a different organic base
o A ­ Adenine
o T ­ Thymine
o G ­ Guanine
o C ­ Cytosine
Nucleotides have a pentose sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate group and the base
Covalent bonds connect the phosphate to the sugar and the sugar to the base
Nucleotides can bond together by forming phosphodiester bonds between the phosphate group
on one nucleotide and…read more

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34
o Ordered sequence of 3 bases corresponds to 1 particular amino acid
It is a degenerate code
o Since there are 4 bases, there are 43 = 64 possible sequences
o All amino acids (except methionine) have more than 1 triplet
A triplet coding for an amino acid is called a codon
The codon for the amino acid methionine is known as the start codon (ATG)
This marks the start of the gene for a particular polypeptide
There are several stop…read more

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34
The 1omRNA is processed by removing introns
o Introns are sections of DNA that are only there to keep the molecule stable, and called
`genetic rubbish'
o They do not code for any polypeptide chain
o By removing the introns, all exons are placed next to each other to form the complete
genetic code
o Exons are the sections of DNA within the gene containing the codons for the triplet code
for the protein
The functional mRNA then moves to the…read more

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34
This changes the shape so that the protein's 3D shape is as complementary as possible to its
target molecule
In most cases, the methionine used to mark the start of the polypeptide is removed
Cyclic AMP, a nucleotide derivative, is used to alter the 3D shape
Protein synthesis in Prokaryotes
Faster than in eukaryotes
mRNA produced off the free, naked DNA
Histone coat doesn't need removing
Doesn't need to move through the nuclear pores
Mutations
Mutations cause changes to the sequence…read more

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34
Likely to have less of an impact than insertion/deletion mutations
Can be silent if the change still results in a codon for the same amino acid
o E.g ACG and ACA code for cysteine.…read more

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34
The regulator gene produces repressor molecule with two binding sites, one each for lactose and
to the operator
When no lactose is present, the repressor molecule can bind to the operator, which in turn
blocks the binding site on the promoter
This prevents RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter
This prevents the transcription of the structural genes adjacent to the control sites
This is useful as the enzymes are not produced when they are not required, saving amino acids
and…read more

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34
o Separation of toes during development
Apoptosis is controlled by genes that promote or inhibit it
These genes are controlled so that it can be switched on or off in appropriate cells
This allows the correct body plan to development
Meiosis and Variation
Organisms reproduce either sexually or asexually
Asexual reproduction is as a result of mitosis in eukaryotes and binary fission in prokaryotes
In these processes, offspring are genetically identical and the only variation is introduced by
random mutation
Mitosis…read more

Comments

Sat

amazing notes!

sana

great set of notes! thankyou!!

sana

could do with some more diagrams for visual learners however still very in depth and detailed!

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