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Biology F215
Contents
Cellular Control and Variation............................................................................................................ 1
Cellular Control.............................................................................................................................. 1
DNA structure ............................................................................................................................ 1
Genetic Code ............................................................................................................................. 1
Protein synthesis ....................................................................................................................... 2
Mutations .................................................................................................................................. 4
Lac Operon ................................................................................................................................ 5
Body Plans ................................................................................................................................. 6
Apoptosis .................................................................................................................................. 6
Meiosis and Variation .................................................................................................................... 7
Mitosis summary ....................................................................................................................... 7
Meiosis ...................................................................................................................................... 8
Genetic…

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34


Metabolites ............................................................................................................................. 24
Large scale fermenters............................................................................................................. 25
Immobilised enzymes .............................................................................................................. 26
Genomes and Gene Technologies ................................................................................................ 27
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).............................................................................................. 28
Restriction enzymes................................................................................................................. 29
Electrophoresis ........................................................................................................................ 30
DNA probes ............................................................................................................................. 30
DNA sequencing ...................................................................................................................... 31
Genetic engineering................................................................................................................. 33
Genetic engineering of Insulin ................................................................................................. 35
Genetic…

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34


Muscular movement................................................................................................................ 57
Fight or flight ........................................................................................................................... 63
Animal behaviour ........................................................................................................................ 64
Innate behaviour ..................................................................................................................... 64
Learned behaviour ................................................................................................................... 65
Social behaviour ...................................................................................................................... 67
Dopamine ................................................................................................................................ 67




3
©Ross Edwards 2013

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34



Cellular Control and Variation

Cellular Control

DNA structure
Deoxyribonucleic acid
A polymer of nucleotide subunits
4 nucleotides, each with a different organic base
o A ­ Adenine
o T ­ Thymine
o G ­ Guanine
o C ­ Cytosine
Nucleotides have a pentose sugar (deoxyribose), a…

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34


o Ordered sequence of 3 bases corresponds to 1 particular amino acid
It is a degenerate code
o Since there are 4 bases, there are 43 = 64 possible sequences
o All amino acids (except methionine) have more than 1 triplet
A triplet coding for an…

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34


The 1omRNA is processed by removing introns
o Introns are sections of DNA that are only there to keep the molecule stable, and called
`genetic rubbish'
o They do not code for any polypeptide chain
o By removing the introns, all exons are placed next to…

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34


This changes the shape so that the protein's 3D shape is as complementary as possible to its
target molecule
In most cases, the methionine used to mark the start of the polypeptide is removed
Cyclic AMP, a nucleotide derivative, is used to alter the 3D shape…

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34


Likely to have less of an impact than insertion/deletion mutations
Can be silent if the change still results in a codon for the same amino acid
o E.g ACG and ACA code for cysteine. If the G of the former is replaced by A, the result…

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34


The regulator gene produces repressor molecule with two binding sites, one each for lactose and
to the operator
When no lactose is present, the repressor molecule can bind to the operator, which in turn
blocks the binding site on the promoter
This prevents RNA polymerase from…

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Biology F215 05/01/2013 11:34


o Separation of toes during development
Apoptosis is controlled by genes that promote or inhibit it
These genes are controlled so that it can be switched on or off in appropriate cells
This allows the correct body plan to development

Meiosis and Variation
Organisms reproduce either…

Comments

Sat

Report

amazing notes!

sana

Report

great set of notes! thankyou!!

sana

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could do with some more diagrams for visual learners however still very in depth and detailed!

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