OCR AS British History 1815-1851 Key Individuals

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Name/Title What did they do?
King George III Been on the throne since 1760 and by 1815 was very ill, in 1811 he was declared unfit to govern after being found talking to trees at Windsor.
He later dies in 1820.
King George IV George had been prince regent since 1811 and later became king in 1820. He was too lazy and incompetent to take much interest in
government and politics so that the government of the country continued to be left more and more to the king's ministers. He died in June
Lord Liverpool In 1815 he was elected prime minister after already occupying the job for the past three years. The prince regent relied heavily on Liverpool
and his cabinet ministers to control parliament and govern the lands. In the 1820's he promoted 'liberal Tories' to the cabinet as economic
conditions improved, unemployment fell and popular protest dwindled. He believed trade was hampered by old and outdated regulations. He
and the chancellor simplified the import duty laws to make it more efficient and reduced import duty. Liverpool retired in February 1827
Tom Paine He wrote the book 'Rights of Man'. People from the poorer sections of society felt inspired by his work. The book advocated sweeping
reforms to improve the lives of working people. He called for free education and pensions for the elderly, above all he called for universal
manhood suffrage so that all men had the right to vote.
Ned Ludd and the A mythical leader who led a faction of people called the Luddites. He was portrayed as a robin hood type figure, but is unlikely he ever
Luddites existed. The luddites would blacken their faces and attack factories and mills at night. They attacked new machines in factories. They were
most likely skilled men who felt their livelihoods to be under threat as they lost their jobs to these machines and many women and children
were now employed to run the machines and the factories.
A Radical Those who believed in the need for radical or fundamental reform.
Fund holder Those who had lent money to the government during the Napoleonic wars.
Sir Francis Burdett An MP who called for the vote for all householders or for all who paid taxes directly to the government.
William Cobbett His weekly short pamphlet the 'political register' was the most widely read radical journal in the years after 1815. He rode round Britain on
horseback in order to win support and learn more about living and working conditions. To avoid arrest, he fled to the USA in 1817. Returning
in 1819. In 1832 he became the radical MP for Oldham, Lancashire.
Samuel Bamford A Lancashire radical and weaver
John Hampden A harsh critic of the king's government at the start of the civil war in the 17th century. It was him that the Hampden clubs were named after.
Henry 'orator' Hunt He came from a farming background. He was known as 'Orator Hunt' because of his fiery speeches, he became a hero to the working
classes. He had no interest in winning the support of 'gentlemen reformers'. Instead he looked to huge outdoor meetings to rouse the
masses and create and springboard for a rising. He didn't want any riots, he believed that it was by being well organised, orderly and
peaceful that the masses could demonstrate their new found power and discipline. He founded the metropolitan political union.

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Oliver' the agent He infiltrated a group of discontented workers in Derbyshire and led them to believe that, if they rose up and marched on Nottingham, their
provocateur rising would be the start of a national rebellion. When they arrived in Nottingham the army arrested them and the leaders were executed.
George Cruikshank Cruikshank did not hold strong political beliefs and was willing to produce anti-radical prints from tory booksellers. He was an artist by view
and painted what he was paid to do.…read more

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Francis Place a radical MP who campaigned to repeal the combination laws and thus make it legal to form trade unions. He argued it was safer to allow
working men to form unions and to bargain with their employers over wages and working conditions than it was for unions to remain illegal
and thus have to become secretive underground organisations.…read more

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Lord Melbourne Was a Canningite tory and future PM. He became Home secretary in Grey's government. He was as tough as any home secretary in
Liverpool's government, he encouraged magistrates to give out harsh sentences in the swing riots, used troops where necessary and set up
special commissions to try offenders.
Thomas Attwood He led the Birmingham political union (BPU). He aimed to achieve reform of parliament.…read more

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Edwin Chadwick He was a Utilitarian and friend of Jeremy Bentham. He was one of the two co-leaders in the Poor law commission set up in 1832 to
investigate and make recommendations for reform of the system. Once the Poor Law Amendment Act went through parliament, the
commission was used to set and maintain uniform standards throughout the country with Chadwick as its secretary.
Nassau Senior He was an Oxford professor and a keen supporter of laissez faire economics.…read more

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Feargus O'connor A lawyer. He established the Northern Star newspaper in 1837, a widely read chartist journal. He was a powerful speaker, but accused of
being a rabble rouser for his violent language. He said education policies of other Chartists were a distraction from the cause. Organised 2nd
petition in 1842 with 3 million signatures. Rejected by parliament in 1842. He organised 3rd petition in 1848 which was also rejected.…read more



Fantastic set of revision notes for this subject -  highly recommended!

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