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Build up to the Cold War 1943 - 56

The peace conferences

There were three conferences that were meant to increase peace between Britain, the
USA and the USSR. However they actually, unintentionally, increased tension.

At the Potsdam conference the President of the
USA had changed from Roosevelt to Truman.…

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Development of the cold war

Through a few telegrams and speeches the cold war began to develop and tension
between communist and capitalist countries continued to grow.

Churchill's Iron curtain speech in 1946 showed that he was
concerned that a metaphorical division had descended over
Europe, dividing East and west,…

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In 1947 Truman created a policy called the Truman Doctrine. He was worried that
communism would spread throughout Europe. Below are the main features.

The Marshall plan was Truman's idea to stop countries
turning to communism. He committed $13 billion to rebuilding
communism as long as the countries who accepted…

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These were Stalin policies. Cominform (the communist information bureau) was
established in 1947.

It represented communist parties across Europe and brought them under the direction of
the USSR. When it was introduced it stamped out opposition across Europe and made
sure that Eastern Europe was fully under the USSR's influence.…

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Between 1948 and 1949 Stalin blocked off all roads and railways into Berlin. This is
known as the Berlin Blockade. Below are the causes of the blockade:

The Berlin Airlift

When Stalin began the blockade in 1948, Britain, America and
France responded with the Berlin airlift.

The Berlin airlift was…

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It also showed the allies actions as very peaceful compared to the violent, military actions
that the USSR had taken.

Eventually West Germany was officially created as a separate state and one month
later, so was East Germany.

NATO (The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) was an alliance that was created…

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The Hungarian uprising

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The Three Crises (Berlin, Cuba, Prague) 1957 ­ 69

The Berlin Crisis

By 1960, Berlin was divided into two halves : East and West Berlin. East Germans could
see that in West Berlin people had a higher standard of living under capitalism.

The people in East Berlin began to move…

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The Conferences

Four conferences took place between the USA and the USSR to try and find a solution to
the problem in Berlin.

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None of these conferences were successful and none of them came up with a solution to
the problem in Berlin ­ in fact they made it worse.

In 1961, Khrushchev ordered for a wall to be built through Berlin, separating East and
West Germany from each other. Below are the…







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