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Memory revision
Encoding STM

Conrad 1964 - STM encodes info acoustically (sound), visual info encoded (changed) to
acoustic.
Shulman 1970 ­ disagrees with Conrad and says memory coded info visually also and
according to semantics (meaning)
Heyer and Barrett 1974 ­ Visual images hard to acoustically code may also be…

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Encoding either semantic (memory for meanings) or episodic (Past experiences)

Multistore model ­ Atkinson and Shiffren 1968
Suggests memory has 3 stores: sensory, STM and LTM.
If rehearsed enough info moves from STM to LTM info
needing recall passes through STM to produce
response.
Evidence for: Primacy recency effect shows…

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Loftus and Palmer try showing memorys not factual record of event and can be distracted by
post event information.
Aim to find out how infos supplied after an event influences witnesses memory of event.
2 lab experiments
Both use independence measures design (2 different independent groups)

Loftus and Palmer test…

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Milne and Bull (2002) found when they used 1 and 2 recall much higher
Stein and Memon (2006) Compare normal and CI techniques in Brazil CI increased number of
right info and more details.
Plays key role in legal system
Questioning technique used by police to enhance retrieval of info…

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