Psychology Unit 1 Revision

My teacher gave us all a booklet which covered the whole of UNIT 1. So here it is and i hope it helps.

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  • Created on: 17-05-11 15:48
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The exam for Unit 1 is on:
Wednesday 12th January
at 9am
The exam is 1 hour 30 minutes.
The marks for this unit are divided into 3 parts: Cognitive Psychology (Memory);
Developmental Psychology (Early Social Development); Research Methods.
There are two sections of the paper: Section A: Cognitive Psychology and Research
Methods and Section B: Developmental Psychology and Research Methods.
The exam has structured short-answer questions on Cognitive Psychology,
Developmental Psychology and Research Methods and there is one 12-mark question
requiring extended writing in which QWC (Quality of Written Communication) will be
assessed.
Revision techniques:
- Below you will find the things the AS Level specification tells you to learn. Make sure you revise
these areas of each topic as they could test you on them! Use the specification as a checklist for
your revision.
- Set aside a time limit for each section.
- Use the practice questions to consolidate revision.
- If you are stuck on a key term, google it!
- Email me ([email protected]) or facebook me (Ms Liddle's Psychology) is you
are stuck.
Good Luck! See you in the exam, miss liddle!

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Page 2

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Section A of the paper: Memory
Models of The multi-store model, including concepts of encoding, capacity and
memory duration. Strengths and weaknesses of the model.
The working memory model, including its strengths and weaknesses.
Memory in Eyewitness testimony (EWT) and factors affecting the accuracy of EWT,
everyday including anxiety, age of witness.
life Misleading information and the use of the cognitive interview.
Strategies for memory improvement.…read more

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LTM Duration - Bahrick et al. (1975)
LTM 30 seconds to a lifetime!
How do we know this? A clever natural experiment made use of American high school yearbooks.
Procedure A team of psychologists showed these yearbooks to
about 400 people between the ages of 17 and 74, and asked
them to put names to faces. For each participant, only some of
the photos were their classmates.
Findings Bahrick et al.…read more

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A lot of information hits our sensory buffer but only a fraction of it can be processed as
our brain has a limited processing unit.
2. If we pay attention to the sensory information it can enter our short-term memory (STM).
This has a limited capacity ­ it is believed it can only hold seven items (+/- two items
depending on the size). It is also believed that memories can last from 15-30 seconds in
STM.
3.…read more

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The experiment conducted shows clearly that people have separate stores for STM and LTM as
they can remember words at the start of the list and at the end, but are poor at remembering the
words in the middle.
Serial Position Curve - Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)
Procedure
Pps asked to read through a list of 10 words
and recall immediately as many as they can.…read more

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LTMs and his STM still functioned this provides support for the MSM's claim that all of these
components are separate.
As case studies of can be limited in their generalisability, brain scans of healthy individuals
completing memory tasks have also been used as support for the MSM.
fMRI studies have investigated which
parts of the brain are active when pps
are doing particular tasks.
They found that the pre-frontal cortex is
activated when a person is doing an immediate
memory task (STM).…read more

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Working Memory (STM) is.......
"that bit of memory you are USING when you are WORKING on something."
TASK: How many windows do you have in your house?
How will each of the Working Memory components contribute to the completion of the TASK?
· Phonological Loop
· Visuo-spatial Sketchpad
· Central Executive
· The image of your house will be set up and manipulated in your `Visuo-spatial Sketchpad'.…read more

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He called this the word length effect.
Conclusions The phonological loop has a role in the capacity of STM.
1. This study shows the existence of the phonological store.
2. Capacity of STM should be thought about in terms of how long it takes to say items of
words not how many items there are.
Evidence of the visuo-spatial sketchpad.…read more

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ANXIETY and EWT
Low arousal/anxiety Moderate Arousal/anxiety High Arousal/anxiety
- + -
Christianson and Hubinette
· They had 58 witnesses to genuine bank robberies. (Some bystanders, some directly threatened).
"Christianson and Hubinette (1993) "Christianson and Hubinette (1993) N/A
found that those who were in this found that those who were in this
state remembered less detail" state remembered more detail"
Deffenbacher
· Meta-analysis (analysis of lots of previous studies) of 18 studies looking at heightened anxiety and accuracy
of eyewitness recall.…read more

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All the other slides in both series were identical and shown for 1½ seconds
Participants then given:
- a 20-item multiple-choice questionnaire.
- a line up of 12 head & shoulder photos in a random sequence [and asked to rate how confident
they were of their identification on a scale of 1 (guess) to 6 (very sure)]
Findings
Condition 1 Condition 2
Stimulus gun Cheque
Result ­ correct identification. 11.1 38.…read more

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