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The 2 models of memory:
Multi store model:
Clive Wearing supports this theory by showing that there is an area of the brain that stores
short term memory that is separate from the area that stores long term memory. This can be
demonstrated as he damaged the area that holds short term memory (the hippocampus), so
can't hold down any new memories. However the area that holds long term memory is
undamaged so he still has long term memories that were created before his illness.
Glanzer and Cunitz conducted an experiment using lists of words. They found that the first
and last words were recalled well, while the middle words were not. This backs up the
multi-store model as it demonstrates that the first words were remembered due to
rehearsal, and that last words were remembered as they were still in the short term
memory. The middle words weren't remembered as they were neither rehearsed, or still in
the short term memory.
These experiments are easily replicated, so can be tested for reliability
A victim of a motorbike accident damaged the area of the brain that stores short term
memories, but can still hold down long term memories.
There is a lack of physical evidence
Experiments to prove this theory often involve the participant completing unrealistic tasks
and take place in a lab setting low ecological validity.
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Levels of processing:
Craik and Lockhart
Maintenance rehearsal going over something again and again
Elaborative rehearsal attaching a new memory to an existing memory; giving it meaning
Craik and Lockhart believe that there is a central processing unit (CPU) in the brain that decides
whether or not a memory is important.…read more