AQA Psychology Unit 1 Memory Notes

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: MEMORY Chapter 2/3Jemini Barchha
PSYCHOLOGY ­ MEMORY
The Multi-Store Model of Memory (MSM)
Encoding= Way of processing information into our store and the form in
which the memory is retained
Capacity= Amount of information that can be retained in the store, so
how much it can hold
Duration= How long a memory store can retain information for
Sensory Memory= This is a memory store where information is encoded
via our senses. Stored for a brief period of time
Short-term Memory= This memory store can hold 5-9 items for approx.
20 seconds before displaced or transferred into the final memory, via
rehearsal
Long-term Memory= Final memory store- unlimited amount of
information can be held forever- not all available/accessible. E.g. tip of
the tongue syndrome
Unitary process= The whole system has to work together in order for it
to function. If one part of the system fails to function, Atkinson and

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: MEMORY Chapter 2/3Jemini Barchha
Shriffin believed it would not be possible to store and retrieve new
memories
Description
Atkinson and Shriffin's multi-store model of memory makes a distinction
between the separate stores of sensory, short-term and long-term
memory. Each store has its own characteristics in terms of encoding,
capacity and duration. In short-term, encoding is acoustic, with a
duration of approx. 18-20 seconds and capacity of 7+/-2 items.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: MEMORY Chapter 2/3Jemini Barchha
A weakness of the MSM is that it suggests we transfer information from
STM to LTM via rehearsal, however there are examples of information
that can be transferred into LTM without the need to rehearse, for
example an episodic memory- a significant event, like death or birth of
your child.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: MEMORY Chapter 2/3Jemini Barchha
Role of the central executive= unclear
Limited capacity- impossible to measure this separately from the other 2 slave
systems, however it cannot be experimented scientifically= Reducing
validity+relibility
Capacity is limited in Visuo-spatial sketchpad
-BADDELEY
Conducted 2 visual tasks (identifying the letter F at different angles,
whilst following a light around a screen)
Performance in both tasks suffers
=Overloading capacity in Visuo-spatial sketchpad
Eyewitness Testimony
-Studies on Misleading Information
Loftus and Palmer
Experiment 1
Method
45 participants- students
5…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: MEMORY Chapter 2/3Jemini Barchha
Broken Glass? Group 1- Group 2- `Hit' Group 3-
`Smashed' CONTROL
Yes 16 7 6
No 34 43 44
Asking participants a misleading question can distort their memory of an event-
reducing the accuracy of their testimony
Evaluation
Lacks ecological validity
Lab experiment was used in both experiments
i.e. an eye witness wouldn't usually see a safety clip, they would see
a real accident which makes it unrealistic and cannot be applied to
real life.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: MEMORY Chapter 2/3Jemini Barchha
Children were more likely to wrongly identify the individual
=Children make poorer witnesses than college students
AO2
Criticism(s):
It is a mock crime so lacks ecological validity, and findings are made less
generalisable to real life crimes and witness testimony
Yarney
AO1
Stopped 651 adults in public places
Asked them to recall the physical characteristics of a young woman to
whom they had spoken to, just 2 minutes earlier.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: MEMORY Chapter 2/3Jemini Barchha
People fixate their gaze for longer, faster>> more often on unusual or
highly informative objects
Aim:
To provide support for the `weapon focus' effect when witnessing a
crime
Methodology/Participants:
A field experiment, using students from Washington University. Half
were recruited via an advertisement, offering $3.50 for taking part and
the other half participated to gain extra in their psychology classes.
Procedure:
2 sets of 35mm slides were shown. The slides showed people queuing in
a restaurant.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 1: MEMORY Chapter 2/3Jemini Barchha
>>Witness/Victim will be asked specific questions (by the interviewer) - to
enhance the information
What happens in a cognitive interview (CI)?
>>4 Mnemonics
Reinstating the context:
-Mentally reconstructing
E.g.…read more

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