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Theories in Detail- Cognitive and Social Psychology
Agency Theory- Milgram
People obey orders from authority figures.
Agentic State is where individuals give up their free will in order to serve the needs
Autonomous State is where individuals have free will.
Moral Strain is the unpleasant sensation resulting from pressure to obey orders to
commit an immoral act. People have less responsibility of actions as they are in the
Agentic Shift is the switch between the autonomous state and the Agentic state.
We are socialised to obey orders from an authority figure from a young ages (obey
parents) from society.
Social Identity Theory- Tajfel
Prejudice: making judgements about people based on their group membership,
rather than their individual nature. Negative opinions based on stereotypes, with an
Stereotype: these are common over simple views of what particular groups of
people are like. As in you develop an idea about an individual (the minority) and
apply it to the whole group.
Discrimination: treating people differently according to their group membership, so
is an action carries out as a consequence of prejudice.
SIT is based on Turner and Tajfel's ideas. Prejudice occurs when there are two groups
are present, which results in rivalry and conflict. In groups are the groups to which we
belong, out groups are the groups to which we do not belong.
We tend to put the out groups down in order to boost our self esteem. It is
important we score higher than the out groups so that out in group has status. This is
in group favouritism.
A person's social identity depends on their social group.
There are three different stages in social identity theory.
Social Categorisation: classifying our selves and other people into groups which also
involved the stereotyping of other groups.
Social Identification: identifying with the group to which we belong to, so the sharing of
culture, values and beliefs, the differences between in groups and out groups becomes
much clearer, the social group you belong to becomes part of you.
Social Comparison: the process of comparing our in groups to our out groups, so to boost
self esteem, you make sure you are better than the out group, by outing them down. In
group favouritism occurs.
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Levels of Processing- Craik and Lockhart 1972
Came up with an influential approach to explaining how memory works.
Aim was to explain why some things are better remembered than others,
suggesting that how well a piece of information is processed depends on the way in
which it is processed.
Information can be processed deeply or shallowly. Craik defines depth of processing
as the amount of meaning extracted from the information.…read more
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At its most dramatic, it is the blanking out of all memories, its usually acquired in
childhood from a bad experience with parents.
Reconstructive Memory- Bartlett
Concerned with what happens when information is stored and then retrieved.
He suggests that memory is an imaginative reconstruction of past events, influenced
by attitudes and responses to memories and evens when they occurred. Retrieval of
a stored memory involves an active process of reconstruction.
When recalling an event, we actively it piece together using a range of information.…read more