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Tsarist Russia revision booklet…read more

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The three Tsars
· Tsar is a title given to the autocratic leader of Russia. The tsars were
believed to have been assigned by God
· The Tsar had an imperial council of ministers which consisted of 35-60
nobles and a committee of ministers. The senate supervised the two
· There were three tsars: Alexander II, Alexander III and Nicholas II.
· Alexander II: ruled from 1855-1881: nicknamed `the great reformer'. Son
of Nicholas I. 1861 he emancipated the serfs. Assassinated by People's
will in 1881
· Alexander III: ruled from 1881-1894: he was a strong and orthodox leader.
He was not supposed to be the tsar because he had an elder brother
however his brother passed away. He watches his father die and began
his reign with the public hanging of his fathers assassins. Nicknamed `the
counter reformer'. Died of kidney failure from excessive drinking.
· Nicholas II: ruled from 1894-1917: he grew up in his fathers shadow.
Referred to as a `girlie'. He never wanted to be tsar. Politics bored him.
He was a weak ruler and he abdicated in 1917.…read more

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1885 Alexander II becomes Tsar
1861 Abolition of serfdom
1864 Zemstva formed
1874 Populists begin campaign to `go to the people
18877-8 Russo-Turkish war
1881 assassination of Alexander II
1887-92 Ivan Vyshnegradsky is minister of finance
1891-2 widespread famine
1892-1903 Sergei Witte minister of finance-rapid industrialisation process
1894 Death of Alexander III accession of Nicholas II
1898 foundation of Russian social democratic workers party
1901-5 economic slump follows worldwide
1903 Split between Social Democrats
1904 War breaks out between Russia and Japan…read more

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1905 January: bloody Sunday
August: Portsmouth (USA) peace treaty with Japan
October: October Manifesto
1906-11 Agrarian reforms Stolypin
1912 Lena Goldfields massacre
1914 1st August Germany declares war on Russia
1915 Tsar assumes command of armed forces + suspends Duma
1916 February: fourth Duma reconvened
June-August: Brusilov offensive
December: Rasputin assassinated
1917 February: strikes and civil unrest
23rd February: international women's day march in Petrograd turns into
workers demonstration
27th February: troops refuse to fire on demonstrators and join revolutionary
movement; formation of Petrograd soviet…read more

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1 March: first provisional government formed
2 March: Tsar abdicates
3 April: Lenin returns and makes April thesis
3-4 July: Anti-government demonstrations in Petrograd-the 'July days'
27-30 July: Kornilov coup fails and red guards given arms
24-25 October: Bolsheviks seize key buildings in Petrograd
25-27 October: Provisional Government members arrested; Bolshevik
government announced; decrees on Peace and ;and
December: establishment of the cheka…read more

Slide 6

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Section 1: reform and reaction 1855-1881
Alexander II's motive for reform
· As Nicholas I lay dying in 1855 he addressed his son
Alexander and said `I hand over to you my command
unfortunately not in as good order as I would have
· Problems in Russia:
· people had no political rights there was tight censorship
and people were not allowed to discuss rebellion.
· Russia was far behind the West in terms of
· The country was in war-the Crimean war
· The country did not have a strong military. The majority
of the military consisted of conscripted serfs (peasants)
· There was one gun between two soldiers.…read more

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