Key Question 4 - How far did Western democratic structures succeed in the Federal Republic?

Revision Notes on Key Question 4 of the course Dictatorship and Democracy in Germany 1933-63

Specifically for AS OCR History A Unit F964 Option B

Study Topic 4: Dictatorship and Democracy in Germany 1933–63

[Sepcification for my course on pg 63 of:http://www.ocr.org.uk/download/kd/ocr_9582_kd_gce_spec.pdf]


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  • Created by: Flo
  • Created on: 04-06-10 11:36

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How far did Western democratic
structures succeed in the Federal
Republic?
Allied Plans for PostWar Germany

Grand alliance ­ USSR, USA and Britain ­ formed in the latter half of 1941 ­ brought together out of the
necessity of the military survival of their nations.

Atlantic Charter (1941)

Churchill and…

Page 2

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Obsession with security was growing.
Wanted satellites in the West.
Wanted to secure his military and political position in eastern Europe with as little confrontation with his
allies as possible.

Churchill:
Didn't trust Stalin ­ wanted to limit his influence over soviet occupied satellites as he feared the spread
of…

Page 3

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Zones of occupation in Germany controlled by the USA, France and Britain in the West ­ Germany was
to be treated as an economic unity ­ decisions affecting the whole of the country were to be taken
unanimously.
Each zone would be allowed to take reparations from their zones and…

Page 4

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Trials lasted 218 days ­ necessary to translate all procedures into the different languages made it clear that it
would be impossible to try all party members in this way.

Results of the trials:
12 leaders sentenced to death (10 actually executed).
Three life sentences.
Four sentences of up to…

Page 5

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33.3% weren't pursued.
British Zone
More pragmatic approach ­ casebycase basis and the questionnaire wasn't as strictly pursued.
Soon exNSDAP members were allowed to return to their jobs ­ British military officials often permitted
exNazis to assume leadership roles in the Zone (forbidden in the US Zone).
Students forbidden from…

Page 6

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Americans ­ strongest supporters of decentralisation due to their own federal government system.
General Clay ­ influenced US Zone to establish the administrative structure for three Länder.
May 1946 ­ first free federal elections.

British Zone
Doubted Germans' ability to build up democracy ­ wary of giving them political freedom…

Page 7

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It stressed the right of private property and upheld the advantages of the
free market.





Basic Problems

British Zone ­ most dense population and industry with damaged cities.
French Zone ­ the French wanted to extract as much possible from Germany.
Soviets continued demanding reparations out of the Western Zones…

Page 8

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The Bizone:
Talks between the Allies showed the growing differences between the USA and Britain as well as the
USSR and France.
May 1946 ­ tension between the US and USSR ­ USSR hadn't fulfilled their part of the Potsdam
agreement (to send agricultural goods) so the US zone didn't…

Page 9

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BUT the new currency was liberating because the black market collapsed hard work was encouraged
workers' absenteeism was reduced business was stimulated to increase production and selling and it
went well with the Marshall Plan, resurrecting trade.
Economically ­ successful.
By the end of 1948 ­ industrial production had increased…

Page 10

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New constitution was to remain under the strict control of the Western Occupying Powers ­ expressed
in the Military Occupation Statute.
New constitution would be drawn up by a council of 65 delegates from the Länder, not by a constituent
assembly as under the Weimar.

Drawing up the constitution aware…

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