Opposition to the Liberal State

Quite word heavy but you can make more consise notes from this and not waste time having to look for the statistics etc!!

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: ad
  • Created on: 07-03-15 18:31
Preview of Opposition to the Liberal State

First 423 words of the document:

Adrian Rodriguez Political Divisions in Italy
Growth of Socialism:
The growth of socialism is directly linked to industrialisation. Until Italy became more
developed, SOCIALISM was limited, the rise of socialism really began around the 1880s.
As people moved into the cities, socialism became increasingly more attractive.
Socialism seemed to be for the workers, and the RoC soon realised that they were losing
support. Socialism was reliant on the industrial proletariat for support. Only 4/25
million workers were employed in industry!
Trade unions only started growing in the 1900s. New emerging companies such as Fiat
(1899) and Olivetti (1908)
Timeline of Socialism in Italy:
1891: United Socialist Party was formed by Filippo Turati.He organised the Italian
Workers' Congress in Milan. Set up a committee to arrange/form a new party.
1892: Genoa Congress: The party was divided in 2: But the fragmented nature of the
Italian working class was reflected in the movement itself, which was highly prone to
ideological splits.
I. Anarchists/Syndicalists Expelled in 1908 :Campaigned for a series of
revolutionary strikes in order to overthrow the govt. and refused to cooperate in
politics. They would eventually gain support of Nationalists who had the same
goals of overthrowing the govt.- antagonism towards liberalism and socialism.
II. Larger Group: Committed itself to workers' control of the state (long-term aim).
To achieve this, this group understood that they must be involved in
local/national politics to reform and change the system. Mainstream Marxists in
the PSI split the party by diving into Reformists and Maximalists.
1895: PSI founded
1897: 27,000 members, and they had their own newspaper, Avanti.
May 1898: Unemployment rose in the North especially, because of the bad harvest
that year and due to the cost of wheat and bread increasing by 50%.
Political tension was heightened in the 1890s by the "tariff war" with France.
Protective tariffs were adopted by France, provoking Italian counter-measures.
Resulting in a reduction of Iatlian exports and ending the French loans that had
helped to finance Italy's industrial expansion.
I. Bread Riots: In Milan and across the country. Nervous policemen shot 3 rioters
in Milan, and a full-scale insurrection broke out. Army was called in to quell
the riots (118 killed and 450 wounded) and General Bava Beccaris was
awarded the Cross of Savoy by PM Luigi Pellouse. Beccaris was often referred

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Adrian Rodriguez Political Divisions in Italy
to as the "butcher of Milan" and the public resented the fact that he had been
awarded the highest honour in Italy. Thus alienating the govt. from the public
and causing more hostility.
1900: Gained over 200,000 votes in the GE= 32 deputies.Assassination of King Umberto I.
I. Universal suffrage
II. 8 hour day
III. Income tax
IV.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Adrian Rodriguez Political Divisions in Italy
Giolitti's reforms such as the expansion of the franchise, gave socialism more
influence as more of their voters were now eligible to vote. This is supported by the
results of the GE in 1913 the PSI had around 20% of the vote.
Socialism after WWI:
1. Growth of Unions: 1919/20 waves of strikes that paralyse industry and agriculture.
2. Factory Occupations: Aug-Sep 1920= over 300 factories occupied.
3. Land occupations:
a. 1919/20: returning soldiers occupy uncultivated land.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Adrian Rodriguez Political Divisions in Italy
Started to gather momentum before WWI, as the government was criticised for the
war in Libya and neutrality. Fuelled by the convictions of many patriots that
UNIFICATION was not complete- Italia Irredenta
Failure at Adowa: 1896
Enrico Corradnini: In the 1900s he was the figurehead of the MILITANT nationalist
movement-> they supported a more militant/ imperialistic foreign policy.
(chauvinistic/jingoism-excessive patriotism)
Gabrielle D'Annunzio was a supporter! A contemporary artist at the time that had a
lot of support and endorsement.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Adrian Rodriguez Political Divisions in Italy
Non Expedit (1886): Both Pope Pius IX & Leo XIII were encouraged people not to
take part in NATIONAL elections. This is critical, as many Italians (especially the
South) were practicing Roman Catholics and so they would most likely pledge
allegiance to the Church and not the state. Gave the Liberals very little
credence/legitimacy and diplomatic authority, making very few countries recognise
the new state.
Catholics were, however, allowed to vote in local elections.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Adrian Rodriguez Political Divisions in Italy
The Catholic sporting organisation FASCI also expanded rapidly, with 204societiesby
Father Luigi Sturzo: 1871-1959
One of the founding members of the PPI
He argued that the Catholic Church ought to establish a Catholic partyfor Italians to
vote for.
1913: Vatican accepted Sturzo's argument that they should be more ivolved in
politics, so that they could keep Socialists out.
1919: Catholic party created- Italian Popular Party (PPI).…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »