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Unit 2 HIS2R - AS History
Section One: The Political Framework: 1959-1964
Harold Macmillan: Eton/Oxford educated. Government in 1958 had 35 members related to Mac
through marriage. Referred to as `Mac wonder'/'Supermac'
Definitions:
Inflation ­ People have more money, buy the goods, then there's less goods and so the price
increases.
Deflation- Wages are frozen, taxes are increased and borrowing/credit made more difficult.…read more

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Warnings fell on deaf ears: Britain imported 29% of goods.
As 1950s was the age of optimism ­better housing, money goods, cars, appliances, entertainment &
luxuries.
1959 election and its significance:
From 1951 Britain ruled by conservatives.
Labour party torn apart since 1951 debate about relevance of socialism etc.
Key figures:
Jo Grimond, Liberal, Eton/Oxford educated, raised the Liberal profile.
Hugh Gaitskell, Oxford/Eton educated, Labour, served in Atlee's government had sincere
convictions.…read more

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Anthony Eden- Eton educated
Alec- Douglas Home- Etonian, unskilled in economic affairs, foreign secretary under Macmillan and
succeeded Macmillan in 1953 (Mac resigned as `ill' in middle of Profumo crisis)
1959 Oxford Historian Hugh Thomas edited a collection of essays: `Victorian England with all its
prejudices, ignorance's and inhibitions which the establishment sets out to defend'.
Thomas refers to a small, powerful group, who govern Britain as Judges, Bishops, and civil servants
etc.…read more

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Section Two: Causes of social and cultural change in the 1960s
Causes of social and cultural change
Consumer revolution = a growth in consumer spending. Ordinary people bought more goods,
luxuries, non-essentials etc. Young people bought themselves an identity. It was an age of affluence
-> there was improvements in productivity, technological change, and growth in international trade.
Necessities such as food, clothing = 31% of a person's salary ...there was more money for luxuries.…read more

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Wilson set up a Ministry of Technology: Frank Cousins was head of this dept., went against
the old views of the establishment who had focused more on the arts.
Tony Benn became Minister of Technology until 1970. Technology had a big effect on
people's lives and 60's became the time of the space age (Doctor Who, moon landings etc).…read more

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Christopher Cockerell created the flying boat - Hovercraft. From1963 passenger
service across to France.
Medical developments and the oral contraceptive pill
Medical advances = a part of wartime demand
Polio immunisation, penicillin, greater understanding of vitamins, also the introduction of
sophisticated x ray equipment
chemical engineering led to analgesics and sulphonamides, transistor radio tech led to
creation of the hearing aid
NHS, advances for greater population i.e.…read more

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Valve ­drive in wireless, 1954 cheap, light, portable transistor radios of the 1960s.
Teenagers didn't have to listen to what their parents wanted them to. They had a long
battery life & earphones.
Early 1960s BBC = only licensed radio. Had 3 stations, for news, talk/discussion, drama & light
comedy.
No channel for pop music, commercial enterprises, pirate radios for the young i.e. Radio
Luxembourg & Radio Caroline.…read more

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TV viewing, listening to music, inc. tapes, proliferation of magazines
Vogue for DIY `do it for yourself' led to expansion of home repairs and gardening
TV programmes such as Barry Bucknell - Bucknell's House & Percy Thrower on Gardener's
World. DIY became a multi-million pound industry.
People began to decorate, install, control heating & add extensions to their homes as
popular hobbies.
4/5 had a garden to escape urban life.…read more

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Work and home became distinct e.g., only 42% of those who worked in Newcastle lived
there
A better education was more in reach. Lack of mobility was a symbol of the `underclass'
Mass Tourism:
49 million holidays in 1972, when in 1951 there was 27 million
Many were British traditional seaside resorts or holiday camps, image damaged by sewage
scare.…read more

Comments

JessToLetYouKnow

Really detailed and helpful!!

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