Henry VII Revision - Rebellions + Foreign Policy

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Britain, 1483-1529 Revision
The Reign of Henry VII: Political power and control
Character profile:
Henry VII's personality and mode of governing would undoubtedly have been shaped by
his early experiences.
Personal strengths:
He spoke and understood several languages, being particularly comfortable with French
He knew the dangers of imposters lurking in foreign courts seeking aid.
He had built a close group of loyal and trusted colleagues while in exile.
Personal disadvantages:
He had no formal experience of estate financial management.
He had not attended English courts
He had not developed effective relationships with the political nation in England.
He knew little of the country and was virtually unknown to the English people.
Edward, Earl of Warwick - sent to the Tower of London.
John de la Pole ­ made to take an oath of loyalty and then appointed to the King's
Duke of Suffolk ­ made to take an oath of loyalty.
Duke of Northumberland ­ imprisoned for a short time and then given control of the
North but was killed during the Yorkshire rebellion.
Earl of Surrey ­ had lands confiscated, was imprisoned and later released after swearing
allegiance to Henry.
Jasper Tudor made Duke of Bedford
Thomas Lovell made Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Richard Fox became the keeper of the Privy seal.
John Morton became Archbishop of Canterbury.
Reginald Bray became Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.
William Stanley made Lord Chamberlain.
Historians Views on Henry:
Polydore Vergil ­ "He cherished justice above all things".
Francis Bacon ­ "One of the best sort of wonders".
Chrimes ­ "His steady purposefulness saved England from mediocrity".
Gunn ­ "In September 1507 he went out hunting and hawking every day".
Rogers and Turvey ­ "He emerges from history books as a rather dull character".
Andrew Scotus (one of Henry's tutors)­ "Never have I seen a boy of such quickness, so
capable of learning, at that age".

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Milanese Ambassador describes him as: "Cautious, open and fail in his dealing, and
willing to consider all sides of important questions".
Consolidation of Kingship:
He knew that there were those who would question his legitimacy in terms of the
throne, so he did all that he could to cover his tracks.
Carefully planned entrance into London ­ copied style of Edward Iv.…read more

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It also shows Henry's intelligence and his determination to prove himself as a true king.
First Parliament:
Declaration of the king's title ­ Statement that Henry was king by heredity title and
grace by God ­ by right of conquest.
Attainders ­ Removed previous acts of attainders and passed new ones.
Financial Matters ­ Tunnage and poundage (right to raise revenue from trade) was
granted and an act of Resumption enabled Henry to reclaim lands of predecessors.…read more

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Dealing with Threats:
The Lovell Rebellion ­ 1486:
It was the first rebellion Henry had to face as he had only been on the throne for a few
People involved; Thomas and Humphrey Stafford and Francis Lovell. They had all
fought for Richards at Bosworth and went to sanctuary when he lost. (Treated well under
Richard). Lovell was also a distance relation to the Yorkists.
They were loyal Yorkists and so they wanted to re-establish Yorkist power by putting
Lovell on the throne.…read more

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Symonds took the boy to Ireland, a centre of Yorkist support.
The pretender received support from Margret, Duchess of Burgundy the sister of
Edward IV and Richard III, who sent 2000 German Mercenaries and money to Ireland
after stating that he was indeed her nephew. The Irish became more confident and
crowned Simnel King in Dublin in May 1487.
John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln and Lord Lovell joined the rebellion in May 1487.…read more

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The rebel army was crammed tightly on the top of the ridge making them an easier group
Due to the lack of protection the Irish suffered, which demoralized the rebels.
This caused Lincoln to charge at the King's army and initially it appeared as if the rebels
might win but Oxford had gained experience from Bosworth.
After 3 hours the King's army had won.
Henry ordered the capture and removal of all German mercenaries.
He hung insignificant English rebels and any surviving Irishmen.…read more

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Northern counties had been made exempt for tax due to
the need to defend England for the Scots.
There was also a feeling of resentment towards Henry's Lancastrian heritage and also
the fact that he had over throne a Yorkist king.
Henry Percy was soon murdered by the enraged rebels in April 1489.
Henry sent a large army led by the Earl of surrey to find and hang John a Chambre ­ the
leader of the rebels ­ for treason.…read more

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Charles VIII (King of France) ­ Charles VIII welcomed Warbeck to Paris in 1492 and about
100 supporters of the house of York gathered around him. This was because Charles
VIII was at war with England over Brittany. The king of France received Warbeck as a
prince showing him appropriate honours. However in 1494 when Charles VII decided to
wage war in Italy, he withdrew his support for Warbeck to secure the northern borders
of France.…read more

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Princess Margaret to marry James IV (wanted more Anglo-Scottish relations). Warbeck
was no longer welcome in Scotland.
1497 ­ Ireland: Warbeck retuned to Ireland but Kildare drove him out.
1497- England: Warbeck attempted his third invasion. He landed in Cornwall hoping to
exploit the Cornish tax rebellion. Gathered a Cornishman army (thousands of men) ­
proved to be inadequate military leader due to disorganisation of army. Henry sent Sir
Giles Daubeney to crush the rebellion at Exeter.…read more

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The rebels were poorly armed and failed to gain entry to Exeter on the 17th
September and by the time they reached Somerset they had not gained significant
support and Warbeck had deserted them.
However Lord Audley joined them because he had money troubles and had fallen out
of favour with the king.
Lord Daubeney was sent by the king to deal with the rebellion but he just bided his
time to see how the rebellion developed.…read more


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