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The World at Risk

1. Global hazards: what are the main types of physical risks facing the world and how
big a threat are they?

2. Global hazard trends: how and why are natural hazards now becoming seen as an
increasing global threat?

3. Global hazard patterns: why are some…

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What happened to Tebua?

An island of Kiribati ­ a group of very low-lying sand and mangrove islands.
Kiribati is disappearing due to rising sea levels because of global warming.
It is also suffering the risk of Tsunami's due to earthquakes Kiribati faces multiple
More people each year are…

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The number of hazards being reported is increasing however, many disaster events
can be predicted more accurately and so can reduce the effects of the disaster.
Disaster deaths have fallen, but financial damage has greatly increased.
The most common type of natural disaster reported nowadays are floods and
windstorms (increased…

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Earthquake strength Both 6.9

Number killed 25,000 63
Number injured 300,000 3500

Location Bam (Iran), 2003 Central California, 2003
Earthquake strength Both 6.5

Number killed 26,000 2
Number injured 250,000 Very few

The people of Armenia and Iran were more vulnerable than those in California,
because less money was available…

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Ampara, an eastern coastal district of Sri Lanka, had previously experienced rapid
coastal urbanisation; its economy was based on tourism and subsistence fishing and
so was vulnerable to the tsunami.
56% of victims were children
Double the number of women died, compared to men
15% of deaths were aged 50…

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The number of bushfire deaths has fallen. This has happened by:

1. Controlled burning ­ regular burning of leaf litter to reduce the fuel for the bushfires.
This is done every year. Environmental groups argue that this does not allow new
seedlings to grow =tall and strong to survive a…

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Cost £30 billion to replace ­ less than the cost of flooding a major global financial

Hazard Hotspots


Lies on a destructive plate boundary ­ the Eurasian plate is being forced under the
Philippine, creating the deep Manila Ocean Trench to the west.
Faces risks from volcanoes…

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February 2006
Mudslide engulfed the village of Guinsaugon
1150 died
Causes: the torrential rain; 2000mm fell in 10 days during February which is usually
the dry season, La Nina probably caused the rainfall, a 2.6 magnitude earthquake
struck just before the landslide, deforestation (human…

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Thousands of aftershocks 4.0-5.0 magnitude during the following weeks
57 died
1500 injured
12,500 buildings damaged
9000 homes went without electricity for several days (20,000 without gas)
48,5000 people without water
Damage to freeways causing traffic jams for 30km

Climatic patterns in California

California can experience droughts, forest fires, floods…

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Greenhouse gases:

Carbon dioxide ­ makes up 0.04% of the atmosphere. Major greenhouse gas. Given
off when carbon-based fuels are burned, e.g. coal and oil. Fossil fuels have increased
atmospheric CO2 by 25%
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) ­ found in spray cans, foam plastics and refrigerant
fluids. Absorb solar radiation and contribute…


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