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Geography ­ the world at risk
Hazards and disasters
A natural hazard is a natural event or process which affects people e.g. causing loss of
life or injury, economic damage, disruption to people's lives or environmental
degradation.
For a natural event to become a hazard, it has to involve people.…

Page 2

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avalanches concentrated in high mountainous areas. Global warming
increases.

Describing the distribution of earthquakes/volcanoes/slides
Earthquakes greater concentration at plate boundaries e.g. Eurasian plate. Pacific ring of
fire. Mid Atlantic ridge.
Volcanoes found along plate boundaries. Weaknesses in earth's crust.
Slides located in north America/Europe/new Zealand. Mainly in mountainous regions.

Distribution…

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weaker. As a result, some of the warm water piled up in the west slumps back down to
the east, and not as much cold water gets pulled up from below. Both these tend to
make the water in the eastern Pacific warmer, which is one of the hallmarks of…

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and children killed. Mountainous. Conflict.
Ground shaking.
Capacity to Expensive rebuilding. Aid/funding. Aid ­ very remote so no aid. 500,000
cope people. Demand for tents. Conflict
weakened response to capacity.
Death toll Death toll 90,000. Health centres Farmers lost harvest. Schools destroyed.
destroyed. Chemical factory. Loss of Infrastructure ­ regulations.…

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Among the world's wealthiest countries.
Plate tectonics
San Andreas fault where Pacific plate moves north-westwards past the north American
plate. The two move in the same direction causing friction. Called a conservative
boundary. Fault line between.
1906 San Francisco earthquake
8.2 on Richter scale.
1989 Loma Prieta earthquake
Magnitude 7.1.…

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unsta
ble
2) Sets
up
small
conve
ction
curren
t
3) Earth'
s
rotatio
n
cause
s
rising
air to
spin
4) The
faster
the
spin,
the
more
air
likely
to
`touch
down'
on
surfac
e,
formin
ga
tornad
o.

low depressions
pressure
1) Air 1) Cold air from polar…

Page 7

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2) Low warm sector ­ occluded
press front.
ure at 4) Cold air replaced warm.
surfac Temperature evens out.
e 5) Storms
3) Rising
air
draws
up
moist
ure ­
cools
and
conde
nses
4) Cloud
s form
= rain
5) Storm
s
occur


Droughts
Drought an extended period of…

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Natural greenhouse effect:




Enhanced greenhouse effect:




Natural and human causes:
Milankovitch cycles and sun spots plate tectonics Ice-albedo effect
sunspots work in cycles. Sun's existence of land mass at the snow and ice form integral
energy varies over short periods. poles/surrounding part of regulating earth's
Affects global temperature. The encourages…

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increase in cloud cover and rainfall disturbs the balance. This CFCS e.g. in spray
(precipitation from clouds) causes environmental cans/refrigerators
problems. Vegetation helps Rice production, burning
regulate the balance.
vegetation, coal mining,
livestock flatulence
Fertilisers, fossil fuels,
synthetic chemicals.

ocean circulations e.g. ENSO




warm/cold water. Undersea
circulations. El Niño disrupts…

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instrumental records from weather stations. Show near surface
air temperatures. Show warming. pH
levels have changed. Thermal expansion
ice response glaciers change in response. Look at
photos/maps/paintings to see direct
differences in glacial positions.
astronomical forcing Milankovitch theory of earth's orbit. Tilt
leads to change in amount and distribution
of…

Comments

Grace Hannaford

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Really detailed and helpful notes thank-you!

SHAHREZ

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thankyou 

10dhothn

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Do you have notes on rebranding/coasts? 

Jessieturnbull2

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Wow thank you so much

YaAlreeet

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Anyone else on a skits for this exam?

lilkayte

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Thank you

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